Search the site

Loading...

Sunday, February 6, 2011

YOUTH EMPOWERMENT AS A NECESSARY CONDITION FOR NATION-BUILDING IN NIGERIA

JOURNAL
of
ADULT EDUCATION
STUDIES
(JAES)

Vol. 4 No 1
October, 2010


Published yearly by
Nigerian Forum on Adult Education

ISSN 1118-3136

Printed In Nigeria by EKUMAX CO. LTD.
71 Ozomagala Street. P.O. Box 7990,
Onitsha-Nigeria.
08023332843, 088062721424
Editorial Policy

CALL FOR PAPERS

The Editorial Board of the Journal of Adult Education Studies (JAES) is calling for articles both scholarly and theoretical based in all areas of education for publication in her Journal.
Each Manuscript must be accompanied by an abstract of 100 words or less. The APA (latest edition) format (Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association) must be used consistently throughout the entire manuscript.
In addition, all manuscripts must be submitted in triplicate. Manuscripts should be typed Double Spaced on A4 papers and should not be more than 15 pages. The author’s name and affiliation should appear on a separate page or sheet from the article. Contributors should submit three copies on their paper along with a computer CD in Microsoft Word.
All papers should be accompanied with assessment fee of one thousand five hundred naira (N1,500.00) only and two self addressed and stamped envelopes.
All articles accepted for publication must reach the Editorial Board on or before the date considered for publication with acceptance fee of fifteen thousand naira (N 15,000.00) only.

All correspondence including payment should be addressed to
The Editor
C/o Dr. Ugwoegbu Ifeanyi T.
Adult Education Department
Nnamdi Azikiwe University,
Awka, Anambra State
Nigeria.

EDITORIAL
COMMENT

Adult Education is gradually making an inroad into the society. The members of the society are gradually having positive awareness about Adult Education. The Forum is using JAES which is a multi-disciplinary Journal to further dis-seminate the message of Adult Education to the generality of the society. As a multi-disciplinary Journal, the articles in this edition are well researched works in different fields of Education. The papers published here are published bearing in mind various categories of audience - adult educators, researchers, corporate organizations and the entire populace.
JAES as a yearly publication is ready to consider sound theoretical, analystical and research oriented papers in all fields of Education. Nigerian Forum on Adult Education invites all those who are interested in Adult Education to join her to improve the quality and status of Adult Education in Nigeria.


Dr. Onyemuwa, S.G.
Adult Education Dept.
University of Benin
Benin City.
Editor-in-chief
(JAES)



CONTENTS

1 Youth Empowerment as a Necessary Condition for
Nation-Building in Nigeria
-F. A. Fan, Macillina Edu, G. O. Asu-Ojua & Ohiama Ochagu 6

2 Strategies for Improving Community Development Projects in Anambra State
-Ewelum, Johnson Nnadi & Madu Catherine O. 20

3 Towards Effective Implementation of Nomadic Education Policy in Nigeria
-Alia Chinedu.O. 26

4 The Roles of Information and Communication Technology (Ict) in Attainment
of Life Long Learning Among Adult Learners in Adult Basic Education (Abe)
In Anambra State.
-Ifeanyi T. Ugwoegbu, Ph. D, Johnson Nnadi Ewelum, M. Ed,
& Helen E. Adebola, Ph. D. 34

5 Marriage and Family Cycle Trends: Marital Experience
-Rev. Fr Dr. Damian C. Anuka 40

6 Teaching Strategies Enabling Learning for Children Experiencing Reading
Difficulties. In Anambra State.
-Anyachebelu Faith Ebele (Ph.D), Obumneke – Okeke I.M.
& Anyamene, Ada (Ph.D. 46

7 Parents’ and Students’ Perception of the Post Jamb Screening Examination/Test.
-Joseph C. Nnadozie & Vivian N. Nwogbo 58

8 Selected Sports Delivery System as Predictors of Sports Development in Oyo,
Ogun and Lagos State Colleges of Education
-Ogu Okey Charles Ph.D & Ananomo, Leonard Eshiemogie Ph.D 69

9 Newly Married Couples: Tips for Marital Stability and Counseling.
-Rev. Fr. Dr. Dam1an C. Anuka 78

10 Educational Technologies Available and Challenges in Their Optimal
Utilisation in Promoting Children’s’ Literacy Instruction
-Dr Obidike Ngozi Diwunma, Dr. Onwuka Lilian Nwanneka
& Dr. Anyikwa Ngozi Eucharia 86

11 Dimensions of Capacity Building in Business Teacher Education for Quality
Assurance and National Development
-Dr. J.I. Ezenwafor 100

12 Teaching Strategies Enabling Learning for Children Experiencing
Reading Difficulties in Anambra State.
-Anyachebelu Faith Ebele (Ph.D), Obumneke Okeke M.I,
Obidike N.D. (Ph.D) & Anyamene, Ada (Ph.D). 114
13 Attitude of Senior Secondary School Female Students in an Am Bra State towards
Sexuality Education: Implication for Counselling
-Mmaduakonam, Anene Eunice Ph.D 127

14 Youth Empowerment and Nation-Building in Nigeria; the Counsellor's Viewpoint
-Fan Akpan Fan, Margaret Bassey Ita, Obi Abang Bichene
& Ohiama Ochagu 137

15 The Role of Adult Education in the Reduction of Poverty in Enugu State
-Obetta, K. Chukwuemeka, Ukwuaba, Loretta Chika
& Okenwa, Gertrude Nkechi 149

16 Women Education and the Socio–Cultural Challenges in Nsukka Zone of Enugu State
-Oreh, Catherine I., Obetta, K. Chukwuemeka, Ukwuaba,
Loretta Chika & Okenwa, Gertrude Nkechi 161

17 Acquisation and Application of Sport Skills to Enhance Performance
-Makasi, Peter Amechi 172

18 Stress Management Strategies among Staff of the University of Port Harcourt,
Rivers State, Nigeria.
-Dr. A. E. Nwachukwu, & Nwachukwu, Agnes U. 183

19 Chemo and Radiotherapy Management of Cancer in Nigeria: A Case Study of the
National Hospital, Abuja.
-Dr. A. E. Nwachukwu, 195



















YOUTH EMPOWERMENT AS A NECESSARY CONDITION FOR NATION-BUILDING IN NIGERIA

BY

F. A. FAN
CROSS RIVER UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
AKAMKPA CAMPUS
PMB 1171CALABAR, CROSS RIVER STATE.,

MACILLINA EDU
CROSS RIVER UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY,

G. O. ASU-OJUA
CROSS RIVER UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY

&

OHIAMA OCHAGU
CROSS RIVER UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY



Abstract
Youths are social engineers in any society. Their energy, vigour, inventiveness, character and orientation define the pace of development and security of any society. The focus of this paper is therefore to show the relevance of youth empowerment to nation-building in Nigeria. It observes that the National Youth Service Corps Scheme (NYSC), the National Directorate of Employment (NDE), the National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) as agencies of youth empowerment has accelerated the socio-economic development of the country. The NYSC established by Decree 24 of 1973 encourages members of the Corps to seek employment all over the country, thus promoting free movement of labour. Participants are exposed to the mode of living of the people in different parts of the country with a view to removing prejudices, eliminating ignorance and confirming, at first hand, the many similarities among Nigerians of all ethnic groups. The NDE runs the National Youth Employment and Vocational Skills Development Programme, Small Scale Industries and Graduate Employment Programme, Agriculture Sector Employment Programme and Special Public Works Programme. NAPEP has employed, so far, over 1,500,000 youths under the Capacity Acquisition Programme and 1,000,000 unemployed graduates under the Mandatory Acquisition Programme. Providing employment to youths is a prudent way of making them better not bitter and therefore fighting crimes often associated with idle hands. The paper recommends that more Nigerian youths be trained as craftsmen and technicians to make for self-reliance. Indeed, the presence of unemployed youth could pose serious challenges to existing peace in any community.

Key words: Empowerment, Employment, Nation-building, NDE, NAPEP, Youths.


Nigerian youths constitute the most active segment of the entire population of over 140 million people. They are the social engineers and a veritable channel or catalyst for positive changes in the rural community, in school or urban setting. These youths need love and a fair share of the national wealth. They are people with high hopes, great expectations from parents and elders in the society. At this point, it is necessary to examine the concept of youth as a prelude to an appraisal of this social group. It should be noted that differences exist in perception of the term “youth” by governments, international organizations, and the public. However, the term “youth” generally implies a period of life between
childhood and adulthood. In most

countries of the world, adult status is officially attained at the age of 21 years. Non-the-less, in many African countries, the ability of a person to enter into or sustain a marriage signifies to the public that one has attained adulthood. Hence, chronological age alone does not determine an adult status. It is noteworthy that with increasing modernization, there is a tendency for most African countries, at least in their official transactions, to follow the United Nations or the British Commonwealth definitions of youths as people within the age of 15 – 24 and 15 - 29 years respectively (Egbue, 2006). Quite appreciably, susceptibility of youth to parental and societal influences, which shape their lives and determine their well-being, constitutes a major characteristic of youth. This issue has been examined by Gelles (1987), Wallerstein and Kelly (1992). Accordingly, a large part of the problem of youths in all societies hinge on this factor: There is the tendency to associate youth sub-culture with deviance. Igbo (2000) describes this situation as one in which they are socialized into and committed to a set of values, standards, expectations and behaviour pattern, distinguishable from those of adult society.
Commenting on this, Jupp (1970) observes that youth sub-culture (contra culture) i.e. existing mainly as a reaction against the dominant culture) rejects the adult world; it is confined effectively to those between puberty and thirty; it creates its own leaders and symbols; it demands “liberation,” requires less and less adult cooperation for its sub-society to function; it frightens the adult world. In Jupp’s view, the obvious divergence between youth sub-culture and the adult world tends to be quite bewildering for adults. This situation, of course, signifies what is generally termed “generation gap”. Igbo (2000) finds this situation very worrying because the youth not only reject indigenous articles of clothing and other symbols of national and ethnic identity, but also manifest a wholesale rejection of Nigerian cultural beliefs. Indeed, youth sub-culture, a result of sustained frustration, tends to be delinquent. In this connection, Alaezi (1989) points out that the learners rejection of the society will result in the learner’s passivity, inaction in contributing to societal development, his withdrawal behaviour from social responsibility and service and his perception of the society as not contributing anything to his well-being, progress and social living.
Igbo (2000) observes that areas of youths rejection include values of community ownership, assistance to others as demonstrated in extended family relationships, sanctity of human life and female chastity before marriage. According to Egbue (2006) while seeking independence from adult expectations and demands, the youth enter into what may be regarded as a form of almost compulsive conformity and loyalty to the peer group. This is often marked by intolerance of deviance to the sub culture; a situation which helps to increase the cultural gap between youths and the older generation, thus further distancing the former from involvement in mainstream societal goal. Surely, youth violence is quite often viewed by social scientists as an expression of frustration. The militia activities in the Niger Delta of Nigeria speak volumes on the level of frustration of Nigerian youths in that region.
All said, there is a rising wave of maladaptive behaviour among youths today, which has posed a big challenge to everybody. Nwafor (2006) succinctly asserts that most youths who are not gainfully employed become agents of social destabilization and disunity, economic sabotage and thuggery. The economic implication of this unhealthy climate could be dire. The However, youths are children of present households of this nation and have learnt much of their current loose habits in their environment. There are not enough motivating examples for the youths to copy, such as make for juvenile discipline and natural law-abiding propensity, these days in Nigeria.

Youth Empowerment and Its Agencies
Empowerment is a process of opening up something that has absolutely unlimited potentials. It means reducing vulnerability and dependency. This implies action not passivity and being at the centre, not on the periphery. Everett (1991) looks at empowerment of women as the broadening of choice; the expansion of opinions and alternatives available to women in determining the course of events, which will shape their lives and determine their own destinies. This suggests that individuals so empowered will be involved in the crucial issues of the nation. Living together peacefully; interacting and sharing in the same national issue is something that the youths can do effectively when empowered.
Over the years, the Federal Government of Nigeria has put in place some youth programmes. Some of them will be described here. The National Youth Service Corps Scheme (NYSC), the National Directorate of Employment (NDE) and the National Poverty Alleviation Programme (NAPEP).
In 1973, the Federal Military Government of Nigeria came out with the brilliant idea of the National Youth Service Corps Scheme created by Decree 24 of May, 1973. The aims of the scheme, according to Fadeye (1978) are:
i) To inculcate discipline in our youths by instilling in them a tradition of industry at work and of patriotic and loyal service to the nation in any situation they may find themselves.
ii) To raise the moral tone of our youths by giving them the opportunity to learn about higher ideals of national achievement, social and cultural improvement.
iii) To develop in our youths attitude of mind acquired through shared experiences and suitable training which will make them more amenable to mobilization in the national interest.
iv) To develop common ties among our youths and to promote national unity by ensuring that:
(a) As far as possible, youths are assigned to jobs in states other than their state of origin.
(b) Each group assigned to work together is as representative of the country as possible.
(c) The youths are exposed to the modes of living of the people in different parts of the country with a view to removing prejudices, eliminating ignorance and confirming at firsthand the many similarities among Nigerians of all ethnic groups.
(d) To encourage members of the Corps to seek at the end of their corps service, career employment all over the country thus promoting free movement of labour.
(e) To induce employers, partly through their experience with corps members, to employ more readily, qualified Nigerians irrespective of their state of origin.
(f) To enable our youths to acquire the spirit of self-reliance. (p. 25).
In 1986, the Federal Government of Nigeria established the National Directorate of Employment (NDE). This scheme was aimed at concentrating effort on the reactivation of public works, promotion of direct labour, promotion of self-employment, organization of artisans into cooperatives, and encouragement of a culture of maintenance and repairs. The programmes under NDE are:
National Youths Employment and Vocational Skills Development Programme which emanated from the realization that majority of the unemployed are youths without productive and marketable skills. The aim is to provide unemployed youths with the basic skills. Under this programme there is the National Open Apprenticeship Scheme aimed at providing unemployed youths with basic skills that are needed in the economy. This is achieved by attaching them as apprentices to companies, ministries, parastatals and professional crafts men and women. Under this programme, the various artisans in our cities and villages are being organized into cooperative societies to facilitate the provision of financial and other assistance from government and the organized private sector. There is an expanding array of skills being learned. Some examples are: auto-mechanics, electrical/electronic maintenance, welding/foundry/metal fabrication, plumbing works, carpentry/joinery, leather works, photography, interior design, architectural draughtmanship, painting, computer operation, catering/bakery/confectionery, hairdressing, auxiliary nursing, typing and shorthand, tailoring/fashion designing and modelling.
The second scheme under this programme is Waste to Wealth. This scheme is created to encourage the conversion of hitherto neglected raw materials and other scraps and waste materials into useful, marketable products. For example, by sheer inventiveness, it is possible to use snail shells and other scrap materials to make furniture items, house décor objects, ashtrays, apparels, containers, toys and other functional items. Apart from creating employment opportunities for those concerned, this scheme helps in developing a culture of inventiveness and self – reliance in resource use, thereby curtailing wastefulness and importation of items that can be produced locally.
The Schools on Wheels scheme involves taking fully equipped mobile vocational training facilities to the rural areas. This scheme will become a cornerstone of rural employment and development. The Directorate has initiated schemes to bring the disabled into the mainstream of the gainfully employed by providing them with special facilities. This is to enable them to acquire appropriate skills and training, which would lead to self-employment or gainful employment. Many disabled people lack only ambulatory capability but usually possess full mental and manual dexterity. They can therefore be trained in such areas as assembly of electronic equipment and computer operations.
Small Scale Industries and Graduate Employment Programme is designed to encourage and aid unemployed Nigerians to set up and run their own businesses. In order to help the participants translate their business ideas into viable commercial ventures, the NDE conducts courses in entrepreneurship prior to making loans available to them through its Job Creation Loan Guaranteed Scheme. An applicant is required to submit to the NDE a comprehensive feasibility report of the intended business, the amount of loan needed, names and addresses of two guarantors and his or her own curriculum vitae. The applicants’ feasibility studies are submitted to banks for their scrutiny and approval.
Small scale industry ventures in operation include candle making, soap and detergent making, foundry works/metal fabrication, used products recycling, restaurants, fashion designing/tailoring, refuse collection, agricultural production, agricultural processing, printing and publishing, textile and garment making, polythene bag, manufacturing, furniture/cabinet works, timber marketing, auto-engineering services, refrigeration and air-conditioning services, block and concrete making and butchering and cold store.
Entrepreneurship, which involves recognizing a business opportunity, mobilizing resources and persisting to exploit that opportunity, is a necessary ingredient for self-employment. The NDE recognizes the importance of developing entrepreneurial thinking and behaviour among Nigerians. In this vein, all applicants to the Small Scale Industries Scheme are given an intensive two-week orientation course under an Entrepreneurship Development Programme. The programme covers self-evaluation, business identification, market research and feasibility studies marshalling of resources to start a business, obtaining a bank loan, managing a business, record keeping and accounting, marketing management, legal aspects of business, etc.
Agriculture Sector Employment Programme is designed to provide self-employment in agriculture for school leavers and graduates with Degrees, Higher National Diploma (HND), Nigeria Certificate in Education (NCE) and Ordinary National Diploma (OND) in agriculture or related disciplines. Those who are interested in farming are given the relevant training and orientation and provided with land and loans to start farming ventures.
The NDE implements its agricultural programmes at the State level in collaboration with State Governments. Each state has an NDE agricultural Programme Committee, which sees to the organization and implementation of the programme. The state government recruits the participants and also provides the land needed for farming. Rural communities also provide land through the appropriate local governments. In each case, land allocation certificates are issued to the NDE for land acquired.
There is also the school leavers’ agricultural scheme in the NDE programme. There are two options open to school leavers within this scheme. For those un-trained in agricultural methods the NDE arranges that each state provide two fully-staffed training farms of 250 hectares each.
Special Public Works is designed to provide immediate temporary employment to a large number of the unemployed. The objective is to utilize this valuable manpower resource in carrying out necessary public works using labour-intensive techniques and enable the participants to obtain short-term employment whilst acquiring new skills and trade experience.
The Obasanjo Administration in 2001 came up with the National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) consisting of Youth Empowerment Scheme, National Resources Development Conservation Scheme (NRDCS), Rural Infrastructure Development Scheme (RIDS); and Social Welfare Services Scheme (SOWESS). The Niger Delta Development Commission has devised many schemes aimed at combating poverty in the nation’s littoral region. What NNDC does, according to Adegbamigbe (2008), is to partner with computer training centres to assist in teaching youths information technology skills. Examples in Bayelsa are Blessed Initiative, Sagbama Local Government Area; SGS Technical Limited, Sunway Telecoms and Niger Delta Wetland. The NDDC pays N15,000 on each student for the period of training after which the Commission gives them starter packs.

Youth Empowerment and Nation-Building
Nation-building is associated with national integration, national consciousness, national unity, construction and modification of socio-political and economic structures so as to move with the times (Gotep, 2000). It is concerned with the overall development of a national economically, politically and socially. This view is corroborated by Mezieobi (1994) who submits that nation-building is a multi-faceted, complex process of building the socio-political and economic dynamics of a political society in such a way as to facilitate the polity’s continued independent sustenance, development and growth. In the process, there is a concerted effort by the political leaders to integrate citizens who are naturally diverse in terms of their culture, religion language, economy, education and politics so as to form a united and stable society.
As a vibrant group, the educated and empowered youths can easily be mobilized positively. They can form formidable pressure groups to press home desirable changes in the political leadership at any tier of government. They can use their energy, determination and enlightened position to disseminate information to others so as to create political awareness and consciousness against evil and selfish political machinations. If youths are empowered, one can predict with some degree of certainty a more transformed Nigerian nation, most probably devoid of corruption, nepotism, political manipulation which have for long characterized Nigeria’s political landscape.
Youth employment in agriculture not only ensures food sufficiency but also reduces unemployment rate, idleness and poverty. Sidi (2004) observed that unemployment compounds the problems the youths are facing in Nigeria. By being idle, they are prone to such vices as prostitution, armed robbery, rape. Nigerian girls in the rural areas could be mobilized and taught to keep poultry farms so as to have more meat for the home. Educated girls develop self-confidence in themselves, are more capable of accommodating others, can take decisions of their own and make choices according to their own independent judgments. This would be a great political investment of a high value for Nigeria.
The NYSC has helped to promote unity in a multi-ethnic country. The participants in the scheme are drawn from various universities and other higher institutions of learning. They are from diverse ethnic groups. The scheme encourages inter-state movement of Nigerian youths, affording them the unique opportunity of meeting and mixing freely with one another, knowing one another’s anxieties, hopes, desires and aspirations as well as giving them the opportunity of discussing national and international affairs and making lasting friendship. This promotes mutual respect, trust and confidence and a clear understanding among the youths.
The scheme gives the corps members the opportunity to know more about other parts of the country, particularly the geographical features, the cultural backgrounds of the various ethnic groups making up the country, the diverse occupations of the people, the rate of the socio-economic development and a host of other valuable pieces of information. The scheme equally provides job opportunities for graduates in states where they serve depending on the manpower needs of such states. Also, the scheme encourages inter-tribal and inter-state marriages.
The NDE and NAPEP are agencies that generate employment for the teeming Nigerian youths. Atojoko (2007) reports that:
Over 1,500,000 unemployed youths were registered under the capacity Acquisition Programme, CAP, and 1,000,000 unemployed graduates under the Mandatory Acquisition Programme, MAP of NAPEP. Another group of about 140,000 unemployed youths were trained in over 190 different trades under the CAP. Under NAPEP’s MAP, 40,000 graduates have been attached to manufacturing industries, construction companies and financial institutions since 2001 … The fastest growing employer of labour in Nigeria today, is the telecom industry, specifically the wireless telephone sector that provides services to individual customers using the Global System for Mobile Communication, GSM. As at March, 2004, 5000 new jobs had been directly created out of the telecom sector. The spin-offs in new businesses dealerships, retail outlets for GSM handsets and accessories, and one-man phone boot operations have admittedly been very healthy for the employment market. Indirect employment spin-off is put at 400,000 new jobs. Many young Nigerians who would otherwise have remained unemployed are finding steady employment as phone boot operators and recharge card dealers (p. 20).

This is economic empowerment, par excellence, which reduces social inequalities, improves standard of living. It makes the youths better not bitter and checks crimes that are often perpetrated by idle hands. This is important in view of Ukpong’s (1995) observation that the woes of Nigeria for the past 35 years are enormous. They manifest in recurring rigging of political elections, irresponsible manipulation of political powers, rape on democracy culminating in political instability, bad leadership, religious intolerance, language diversities, engrained ethnic consciousness, moral decadence and majority-minority syndrome.

Recommendations
The paper considers the following recommendations apposite:
* Education has a central role to play as far as empowering our youth for national development is concerned. Entrepreneurial education has become necessary in all our manpower development efforts in Nigeria principally because few new employments are being created by government departments and private organizations for the employable graduates from our secondary and tertiary educational institutions.
* More Nigerian youths should be trained as craftsmen, technicians to make for self-reliance. Anya (2005) laments that lack of the technical and vocational orientation and content in Nigerian education had limited ultimately the achievement of the growth potential of the economy. The outcome constrained the opportunities for employment leading to the high unemployment rate seen among products at all levels of the educational system but much more so among university graduates.
* Excessive reliance on the public sector for the provision of socio-economic resources and the creation of jobs has been the bane of development efforts in Nigeria. It has now been fully realized that the public sector alone cannot provide these facilities because of the limited resources at its disposal. Government must realize its limitations and create an enabling environment for the private sector participation in this regard.
* Non-government organisations (NGOs) have a crucial role to play in poverty alleviation. One of the areas requiring an urgent attention is the mobilization and sensitization of the people and communities to perform their expected roles. These include enhancement of the political awareness of the people through formal and informal local organizations, leadership and citizenship training in the communities, promotion of the spirit of self-help and self-reliance among the youths.
* The study of popular culture and its wider implications for teenager is an essential part of the education of young people in secondary schools and further education. Its attractions and distractions exert a major influence on the consciousness and action of people of this age. Essentially, all aspects of youth culture should be examined including their interrelationships: popular music, fashion and trends in terms of clothes and lifestyles and related subjects such as films and magazines.
* There is a growing need for creativity in the modern day society. The society is characterized by complexity and interdependence, technological and communications advances. Rising expectations certainly call for increased levels of creativity.
* Youths generally have a way of reinvigorating a society. They should adhere stubbornly to the do’s and don’ts of their faith in order not to be distracted from their focus of nation-building.
* Parents should bear in mind that if they do not invest in their children who are around them, such children will not have peace. Parents should also lead a godly life so as to lead their children aright. No child grows right under baneful influences at home since no straight wood can come out of the crooked timber.
* It is advisable that the present generation does not become indulged into so many free services which may prove to be an over-bearing burden on the nation’s resource base in the future, particularly when such lavish commitment of resources is based on the income from single depleting asset like petroleum.
* Zonal youth development centres should be established in the country for entrepreneurial training which would enable the youths to establish their own businesses.

Conclusion
Lack of commensurate opportunities is clearly a major factor in youth alienation and violence. Indeed, the issue of unemployment poses a major problem for youths and requires both public sector and private sector participation to address it if we are to curtail youth marginalization. It should be noted that there appears to be a close link among poverty, poor dietary habits and crimes in any human society. Poverty could be a result of lack of creative ideas, initiatives, and an income so low that it limits opportunities for self-actualization. There is no doubt that an enlightened and effectively mobilized youths is a critical factor for good governance, political stability as well as growth and development. The slogan for the Federal Government of Nigeria should be “build the youths, build the nation”. Our youths are precious resources of the country because they symbolize the hope for quality adult society. It is the way the youths are mobilized for national development that will determine the growth of any nation. Government should inculcate in the youths a sense of discipline towards making them socially responsible and accountable capturing the spirit, essence, purpose of a new national youth agenda. Youth therefore should be adequately prepared for the challenges they will face this millennium.

References

Adegbamigbe, A. (2008). Empowering Niger Deltans. The News 30(1): 29 – 34.
Alaezi, O. (1989). The Nigerian new school curriculum: Issues and insights. Jos: Ehindoro Press.

Anya, O. (2005). Nigerian education is still outward looking. Nigerian Education Times 6: 18 – 23.

Atojoko, S. (2007). Taming the monster. TELL, Nigeria’s Independent Weekly (Free Copy, May 14, p. 20).

Egbue, N. G. (2006). Youth alienation and high incidence of sexual violence in Nigeria: A case study of Anambra State. Multidisciplinary Journal of Empirical Research 3(3): 115 - 119.

Everett, J. (1991). The global empowerment of women. Washington D.C. Association for Women in Development

Fadeye, D. (1978). Current affairs essays on social studies based on Nigeria and Africa for secondary schools, Teacher Training Colleges and G.C.E candidates. Ilesha: Ilesanmi Press.

Gelles, R. J. (1987). Family violence. London: Sage Publications.

Gotep, M. G. (2000). The contribution of social studies education towards nation-building. Social Studies Quarterly 3(1): 116-119.

Igbo, E. U. M. (2000). Nigerian youth rejection of traditional values in the name of development. UNIZIK. Journal of Sociology 1(1): 10 - 14.

Jupp, J. (1970). The discontents of youth. In B. Crick & R. K. Merton (Eds.) Social Theory and Social Structure. New York: Free Press.

Mezieobi, K. A. (1994). Social studies education and nation-building. In K. A. Mezieobi (Ed.) Concern and Insights in Social Studies Education in Nigeria. Onitsha: Outrite Publishers.

Nwafor, N. H. A. (2006). Youth violence in the Niger Delta and its educational implications. Journal of Education in Developing Areas15(2): 227 – 234.

Sidi, S. T. (2004). Education of the Nigerian youth: An imperative to national development. The Gurara Journal of Humanity Studies 2(1): 15-19.

Ukpong, D. E. (1995). Obstacles to effective nation-building in Nigeria: The role of social studies. Nigerian Journal of Social Studies Review 4(2): 102 – 107.

Wallerstein, J. S. and Kelly, J. B. (1992). How children react to parental divorce. In J. M. Henslin (Ed.). Marriage and Family in A changing Society. New Your: Free Press.
































STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS IN ANAMBRA STATE

BY

EWELUM, JOHNSON NNADI

&

MADU CATHERINE O.
DEPARTMENT OF ADULT EDUCATION
NNAMDI AZIKIWE UNIVERSITY, AWKA
ANAMBRA STATE


Abstract
This study intends to find out the strategies for improving community development projects in Anambra State. The population of the study consists of 534 members of registered community organizations. Three hundred members were selected to form the sample through proportionate sampling technique. One research question was posed to guide the study. Questionnaire was the instrument for data collection. Mean scores were used in analyzing the data. The study, among other things revealed that creating awareness on the need for community development projects, organizing launchings and appeal funds, mobilizing the people in development projects, encouraging community organizations, etc are the strategies for improving community development projects. Based on the findings, it was recommended that the government should carryout campaign on the need for community development projects, involve people in all stages of community development projects, encourage community organizations and viable co-operatives, mobilize the people for development among others.


The practice of community development is not new in Nigeria. Even before the advent of colonial administration, the various Nigerian societies employed communal efforts as mechanism for mobilizing community resources to provide physical improvement and functional facilities in their given locations in the social, political, cultural and economic aspects of life. The same communal labour was employed in constructing home stead, clearing farmlands, and other basic services (Esenjor, 1992).
However, the modern concept of community development gave rise to the establishment of community development division/ department/directorate as an important arm of government charged with the responsibility of channeling the efforts of the people towards promoting social and economic development. According to Oduaran (1994), community development was first mentioned internationally at the 1948 cambridge conference on African Administration organized by the British Colonial Office. There, it was agreed that the compound word "Community Development" should be used in place of "Mass Education" and be defined as:
A movement designed to promote better living for the whole community, with the active participation and if possible on the initiative of the community, but if this is not forthcoming spontaneously, by use of techniques for arousing and stimulating it in order to secure its active and enthusiastic response to the movement.
In the same vein, Ezeh (1999) defined community development as a term that denotes various strategies and interpositions through co-ordinated actions of the community members in order to usher in for the people social and economic development. It is an effort geared towards achieving the solution of community problems, raising their standard of living as well as promoting social welfare, justice, community cohesion and the development of their material and human resources to the fullest extent.
Moreso, Esenjor (1992) observed that despite decades of long pursuit to develop our rural communities, the available data shows that about 75% of the world population live in the economically underdeveloped areas with far below acceptable standard of living. According to him, the low standard of living manifests itself in a number of factors that affect the people such as poverty, illiteracy, inadequate fund, lack of people’s participation, among others.
Since independence, successive Nigerian governments had made specific provisions for community development in the national development plans. To give this a strong expression to community development, Nigeria has witnessed a number of government initiated national development programmes with embedded and inherent community development goals and objectives. Some of them include the Green Revolation, Operation Feed the Nation (OFN), the Mass Mobilization for Social Justice and Economic Recovery (MAMSER), the Directorate for Food, Roads and Rural Infrastructure (DFRRI), the Better Life for Rural Women, among others.
Despite the efforts of the government in providing a member of development progremmas, there is no evidence to show that these programmes have been contributory in rural communities of Anambra State. A number of factors work singly or in combination to affect people’s participation in community development activities. However, it is possible that if adequate community development strategies are employed, the deterioration in people’s participation in community development projects will be reversed. Therefore, the emphasis and focus placed on strategies for improving community development projects made the choice of this topic most appropriate and timely.

Research Question:
One research question formulated to guide the study.
What are the strategies for improving community development projects.
Method
The study adopted a survey research design. The population of the study consists of 534 members of community organizations registered with the Department of Community Development and Social Welfare in the Local Government Areas. Because of the geographical spread of the State, two registered community organizations were selected from each of the six zones that make up Anambra State. Three hundred persons were sampled through proportional sampling technique. Questionnaire was the instrument used for data collection. It is grouped into two sections “A” & “B”. Section “A” elicited information on the personal data of the respondent while section “B” elicited responses from the research question posed. The instrument was subjected to face validity by two experts in Adult Education and another two experts in Measurement and Evaluation. Comments from the experts were incorporated in the modification of the instrument. The reliability coefficient of the instrument was determined by using the split-half method. Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was used for the analysis. The reliability of the instrument was found to be 0.87. Thus, the instrument was highly reliable. The data collected was analysed using weighted mean. Decision rule was based on the five-point likert scale. Thus, any mean score that is up to 3.00 and above was accepted while mean scores that is below 3.00 was rejected.



Results
The findings of the study are presented below:
Mean Rating of the Strategies for Improving Community Development Projects.


S/N

Prospective Strategies
SA
A
U
D
SD
Total
X

Decision
1. Mobilization of the people and creation of awareness on the need for community development
143

715
157

628
-

-
-

-
-

-
300

1343


4.5
Accepted
2. Involving the people and communicating with them in all stages of development
132

660
168

672
-

-
-

-
-

-
300

1332


4.4


Accepted
3. Emphasis on leadership by example with proper accountability 120

600 147

588 2

6 21

42 10

10 300

1246

4.2

Accepted
4. Organizing launching and seeking for governmental and non-governmental assistance 142

710 156

624 -

- 2

4 -

- 300

1338

4.5

Accepted
5. Encouraging community organizations and viable co-operatives for self – help. 125

625 144

576 -

- 18

36 13

13 300

1250

4.2

Accepted
6.
Use of Integrated rural development 142
610 158
632 -
- -
- -
- 300
1242
4.1
Accepted

The above table reveals that all the listed items were generally accepted. This is an indication that all the items in the table were accepted as strategies for improving community development projects.

Discussion
The results in the table showed that all the listed items were accepted. This conforms with the idea of Anyanwu (1987) that mobilization of people in the rural areas involves using such strategies as mass media like video, posters, pamphlets, etc; to motivate them and win their acceptance for change and development as well as involving the participants in the formation, implementation, and evaluation of the projects or programmes. As he maintained, organizing launchings encouraging community organizations and ensuring sound leadership are also strategies for enhancing community development projects. Furthermore, Samuelson and Nordhaus (2003) noted that to maintain a healthy economy, governments must provide incentives for people such as jobs and that societies should support the unemployed pending the time they secure jobs. Moreso, speaking on integrated rural development, Anyanwa (1982) stated that community development means more than construction of roads, schools, bridges, etc through self-help. A comprehensive programme of community development includes; provision for the economic, socio-cultural, and political conditions as well as co-ordinating and managing human and material resources. In addition, Esenjor (1992) maintained that the need for integrated rural development arose out of the realization that the sectoral approach to rural development is not encompassing enough as many related variables involves in the overall pattern of rural development are ignored. The objective of integrated rural development is to provide for all aspects of rural development, particularly increased rural incomes, adequate roads, marketing and credit facilities and training for the inhabitants. Thus making rural areas attractive to young school leavers and stem urban migration.

Recommendations:
Based on the above findings, the following recommendations were made:
1. The government should mount campaign on the need to embark on community development projects especially at the grassroot level. This will help the local people to see development as their own neither than the government.
2. Community development officials should endeavour to mobilize the people. This will help to ensure popular participation in development projects.
3. The people should be involved in all stage of community development projects or programmes i.e, planning, implementation, and evaluation. This will make them feel that they are parts and parcel of the whole development and not as foreigners.
4. Leadership by example and proper accountability to the people should be encouraged as this will help to elicit the desirable legitimacy from other rank and files in the community on the on-going project(s).
5. Launching and appeal fund should be organized when any development project is conceived. This will help the community to realize some of the initial capital that will be used in the project.
6. Community organizations and viable .cooperatives should be encouraged. These are the organizations that ginger people into actions or processes of change.

References
Anyanwu, C. N. (1982). Community Education and Development. Ibadan: Abiprint.

Anyanwu, C. N. (1987). Developing Adult education in Nigeria. Ibadan: University Press Ltd.

Esenjor, A. F. (1992). Nuts and Bolts of Community Development for Students and Practitioners. Delta: Esenkin Nigeria Services.
Ezeh, C. A. (1999). Theory and Practice of Community Development; Introduction to Community Development. Nsukka: Liberty Printing Press.

Oduaran, A. B. (1994). An Introduction to Community Development. Benin City: Uniben Press.

Samuelson, A & Nordhaus, C. (2003). Population Growth and Socio-economic Change in West Africa. London: Longman Group Ltd.
























TOWARDS EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF NOMADIC
EDUCATION POLICY IN NIGERIA

BY

ALIA CHINEDU.O.
EDUCATIONAL MANAGEMENT AND POLICY
NNAMDI AZIKIWE UNIVERSITY,
AWKA


Abstract
The general consensus is that education is a means of social transformation and national development. Accordingly every society needs to be an “educated one” today order to progress, grow and even survive, government introduce nomadic. Education to affect the
lives of nomads. Some of the problem encountered by the nomadic education includes defective policy, inadequate finance, faulty school placement, and incessant migration of students, unreliable and obsolete date, and cultural and religious taboos. While some of these problems are solved by policy and infrastructure intervention, employment of qualified teachers, most of the problems are complex and difficult to solve. The persistence of these problems is causing the roaming Fulani to remain educationally backward.Despite this the way forward and conclusion shows that for the progremme to solvive, government have made provision for the training of nomadic teachers, good curriculum format, national commission for nomadic education board established with this education will spread among the Fulani


Education occupies a center stage in Nigeria’s social and economic development. The importance of education has been adequately documented in the literature. “All who have mediated on the art of governing mankind have been convinced that the fate of empire depends on the education of the youth.” (Wintergreen, Antholt, and Whitaker 1984; 34), the impertinence of education in Nigeria is evident from the large budgetary allocation in the national Development plans. The government of Nigeria believes that learning is the primary means of upgrading the socioeconomic condition of the rural population. This population, particularly the Fulani are difficult to educate. With less than ten percent of the men and two percent of the women Fulani formally literate and numerate, the number of lettered men and women in western-style education among the Fulani falls below the national average. (F.R.N. 1993)
Apart from the literacy gulf between the Fulani and the non-Fulani, there is a disparity in the attainment of different types of education among the Fulani. Here the national policy objectives are clearly stated as a foundation (FRN, 2004) these include:
1. A free and democratic society
2. A just and equalitarian
3. A united, strong self- reliant nation
4. A great and dynamic economy
5. A land of bright and full opportunities for all citizens
The Nigeria government recognize that its philosophy of education is based on integration of the individual into a sound and effective citizens and equal educational opportunities for all citizens of the nation at all levels of education .it is clearly stated in the policy document that for the philosophy of Nigerian education to be in harmony with Nigerian’s educational objectives, it has to be geared towards self-realization better human relationship, individual and national efficiency, effective citizenship, individual and national consciousness, and national unity as well as towards social cultural, economic, political, scientific, and technological progress.
The national aims and objectives as listed in this section on philosophy of Nigeria Education includes:
1. the inculcation of national consciousness and national unity.
2. The inculcation of the right types of values and attitudes for the survival of the individual and the Nigeria society.
3. the training of the mind in the understanding of the world around; and
4. the acquisition of appropriate skills, abilities, and competencies both mental physical as equipment for the individual to live in and contribute to the development of the society. (Fafunwa A. B. 1995)
The Aims of Nigerian Government to introduce Nomadic Education and its Policy
To remove the chronic illiteracy among the mobile population of Nigeria, the nomadic education program has three goals . To raise the living standard of the rural community; to harness the potentials of the Fulani; and to bridge the literacy gap between the Fulani and rest of the society. The purpose of this enable Fulani people to participate in the planning, implementation and evolution of project affecting their special living conditions, as well as their future.
To cultivate their awareness on their right and problems it will encourage nomads to form community organization and participate in political realm effectively.
PROBLEMS
The non- participation of the Fulani in decision- making, a simplistic approach to education planning is adopted. Advice on nomadic education are sometimes emotional, tactless, and ill intentioned. Planners fail to take account of the government’s inability to provide specialized services. For example, just to impress the public, the government has rushed into policy pronouncements for mobile school system without considering the difficulties in getting teachers, monitoring students, and developing, curricula. The nomadic education curricula are unsuitable, if not an impediment, to learning. For example the use of English for instruction at the elementary school level is inappropriate. Learning in the English language is difficult for the Fulani children who have yet to master their own language. The problem is that duuldee to cost the government cannot develop fulfilled language to replace English as a medium of instruction in schools. Furthermore, the curricular according to the miyetti-Allah Cattle Breeders Association of Nigeria
(M.A.C.B.A.N.) focus on teaching irrelevant subjects like cockroach breeding, how to play basketall, and how to climb mountings, things that do not interest the Fulani or that look down upon their cltures and lifestyles. From the beginning, the colonial officers in Nigeria did not have a have a high regards for jobs involving the use of the hand. Niamir (1990: 107) adds:
“The formal schools provide the literacy needed in modern times, but their content is too foreign to the pastoralists. They teach the value of sitting in offices behind desks, rather than the value the use of the land
SYLLABUS
Instead of teaching pastoral procedures, formal school spend too much time on teaching history and cultures of societies the pastoralists Least know or want to know about. Conventional education ignores the desirability of the apprenticeship model, thereby closing a vital channel of skill transfer (Aleyidieno 1985). While the apprenticeship model allows the apprentice and the trainer to have an income from the sales of charms, from donations by philanthropists, and from reciting the Koran and leading prayers in the homes of the wealthy, the formal education instead compels students and parents to make such major sacrifices in labor loss and payment of school fees. Writing about education among the East African pastoralists, Nkinyangi (1980:194) states “pastoralist in our education system get knocked on the head, being told they don’t know anything… although they in fact come in with knowledge that even if we studies half our lives we wouldn’t achieve.”
The Fulani are concerned about he attitude of their children who go to school and graduate with ideas that are at odds with traditional pastoral pactices. Nkinyangi (1980, 51) quotes a Fulani leader: we are not opposed to the idea of getting our children to schools, but we fear that at the end of their schooling the will only be good at eating up cattle instead of tending and caring for them.’
Finance
The shortage of funds limits government efforts to provide formal education in Nigeria. States that have started nomadic schools are burdened by the costs. The state government are finding it hard to pay the teachers, supply furniture, or repair the furniture. Some states are closing down the schools or ordering them to go on extended vacations because the classrooms are inhabitable. Insufficiency in funds has led to inadequacy in education among the rural dwellers (Winnergreen, Antholt, and Whitaker1984).
Lack of financing compels the students to bear partial cost of training. As they face more fiscal hardships, the nomadic schools are asking the children to bring their own teaching materials to the school.
While the oil fortunes of the seventies have helped Nigeria fulfill its universal Primary Education dream, the fiscal slump of the late eighties has narrowed the conutry’s ability to implement the nomadic education program. With economic hardship, is widespread corruption. The mismanagement of money by officials in the N.C.N.E annual Repot comments on the abuse of funds:
The draw back of the initial implementation of the program was that the expenditure of money disbursed to the state was not carefully monitored to determine its proper use in paying teachers salaries, provision of appropriate classrooms and teaching materials

ACCESSIBILITY
The progress of the mobile schools has been curtailed by the shortage of roads and lorries in the rural areas. Having committed to several curtailed-intensive, post-independence projects, the government of Nigeria is experiencing difficulties pursuing educational programs involving large capital outlays. The financial burden has forced some school to operate in the open. While learning in unroofed or partially roofed space may be possible during dry days, teaching under such conditions is impossible on wet days. Flood, muddy terrain, leaking roofs, and uncooperative weather have resulted in the loss of school days.
UNQUALIFIED PERSONAL
Lack of money also forces the government to rely on volunteers or unqualified teachers. the poor salaries cannot attract a caliber of staff with the commitment to educational enrichment of the Fulani. Scarcity of chalks, books pencil, and blackboards, for example, undermines teaching. Students are taught how to write on the sand with their bare hands. Requests from schools for children to bring learning kits dampen the spirit of parents who think they have already made enough sacrifices by letting their children go to school rather than go on grazing.
EDUCATION PLANNERS
The uncertainty of the movement of the Fulani makes educational planning and student monitoring difficult. Unscheduled out-migration due to environmental failures or conflicts between the farmers and the pastoral Fulani disrupts school operations and classroom composition. In one school visited, about half of the pupils who have attended the school in the previous season have moved. Many Fulani ascribe erratic attendance and low enrolment in school to habitual movement. Seventy-one percent of the Fulani interviewed in this research affirm that shifting settlements prevent the children from improving their literacy. As a result of the movement, the teachers face the extra task of adjusting their teaching to fit the dynamics of the transient population
Increscent mangration of student
Some teachers cannot endure the rigorous movement of the Fulani. The initial zeal among unmarried teachers –and most teachers are unmarried –in nomadic school fades soon after such teachers marry. Teaching then becomes a second or a third career choice for these teachers. In spite of the obvious problems of education the mobile population, the government cannot make sedentarization a precondition for establishing school in the rural areas. Not only requiring hefty overhead cost, sedentarization is time-consuming, as one government publication (N.C.N. E Annual report 1990, 10) explains:
It could have been easy to recommend resettling the nomads as a workable solution to the apparent intractable problem of educating them. In that case we would first get them settled, and then introduce the conventional school system. Sedentarisation, in such a situation, becomes a prerequisite for education. But, it has been argued that it is better that education for the nomads goes paripasu with the process of settling them. It is unacceptable to suggest that the bororo should be given no education until he is permanently settled. Settlement processes and programs are expensive, complicated, and will take a long time. It may not be completed in the next twenty years. Educating nomadic children does not have to wait that long.
The under- funding of nomadic education is partly blamed on inaccurate demographic date. The lack of reliable statistic on the nomads leads to planning based on guessing. There was mush confusion as to actual number of the nomadic schools, types of school facilities and number of teachers in various locations. Lack of authentic date in these areas made planning for nomadic education very difficult.

INAPPROPRIATELY SCHOOL CONDITIONS
School are stationed inappropriately: few I densely populated areas, and many in sparsely populated areas. On the one hand, having many schools in the pastoral areas attracts non-Fulani children and accentuates competition for other resources. On the other hand, having few schools discourages the Fulani from participating in education.
The major hindrances to school attendance are the daily grazing movement and the lack of labor substitutes. Unlike farmers who use child labor marginally the Fulani rely heavily and continuously on children for labor. A Fulani man will not send his child to school even if an adult is available to tend the animals because the child needs to learn the herding skills. The reliance on juveniles for shepherding task, not ignorance or conservatism, therefore, explains the poor participation of the pastoralist in formal education (Rigby 1980). Twelve percent of the Fulani respondents in this sample say they cannot engage their children who make up sixty- eight percent of the herding labor-fore in education pursuits. Time-sharing between

A WAY FORWARD
Government should make provision for the training of nomadic teachers in order to have qualified nomadic teachers who will be equal to conditions of the programme. G00d salaries and allowances should be given to them to enable the teachers work hard success of nomadic will depend largely on vigorous and continuous outreach programmers in the rural areas. Consequently, government should embank on village-level campaigns using radio, village announcers and rural cinematography. There should be suitable formal school curriculum, time schedules and calendar; witch will be tailored to meet the needs of the mainstream sedentary people.
The experiences and recorded success of the national commission for nomadic education (N.C.N.E) in its implementation, which shows the barrier to improve the quality of basic education, which can be transcended through innovative policies and programmatic intervention. These innovative delivery of education hold promise for educational reforms in Africa in if adopted and replicated as the case may be to suit different situations and target across the be the continent.
Initiatives directed at quality improvement must be made to make the quality improvement initiative, community based the community support and participation should be a key prerequisite for success pedagogical renewal, through regular teacher development and re-training should be an integral part of quality improvement and assurance initiative the should therefore be Adequately prepared at all time.
An integrated prepared approach to the provision of education should be adopted. Educational; development initiatives should be planned and aligned with other community improvement and development programmes such as agricultural extension, rural development and social welfare.

Conclusion
To conclude, education plays a key role in the socioeconomic development of the Nigeria society. Despite importance of education, many Fulani have not embraced it. Mobility, lack of fund, faulty curriculum design, and dependence on juvenile labor are some of the causes of paltry participation of the Fulani in schooling. Of serious concern to the Fulani also is the fear that western education will have a Christian influence on the Fulani children who are predominantly Muslims. The Fulani express their grudges on the N.C.N.E and its management, accusing it of alienating the Fulani in educational planning and implementation. Despite these obstacles, their is prospects that education will spread among the Fulani, especially with the bleakness in the future of pastoral nomadic. Routine grazing trips and school attendance is a Fulani dilemma.







References


Alkali, H. (1988) “The Challenges of Nomadic Education” Keynote address at the 4th International Conference of Fulfude Language, Literature and culture, Bayero University, Kano 10-14 August, 20 pp.

Aminu, J. (1988) “To Transform the lives of Millions” address at the Inaugural Ceremony of the National Advisory Committee on Nomadic Education November 1, Lagos, 14 pp.

Ezeomah, E.E. and G. Tahir 9 (eds.) (1997) Ecology and Education in Nigeria: Studies on the education of migrant fishermen. Tabansi Press Ltd. Onitsha, Nigeria.

Ezewu, E.E. (1991) Strategies for Educating the Migrant Fishmen in Nigeria, Paper presented at the WAICET Lagos 21-27 July, 19pp.

Federal Republic of Nigeria (1993). National Policy on Education. Lagos Nigeria Government Printer.

Federal Republic of Nigeria (2000). Implementation Guidelines for the University Basic Education (UBE) program, Federal ministry of education, Abuja, Nigeria.

Muhammad, N. D., A.A. Ardo (2003). “Provision of Adult Education and literacy Amongst Pastoral Nomads in Niger paper presented at a National Workshop on the Development on an Action Plan for the Eradiation of illiteracy in Nigeria. Confluence Beach hotel, Lokoja, 27th -30th April, 2003.

Iro, I. (nd.) Nomadic Education and Education for nomadic Fulani. Retrieved: 16-2-08: http://www.gamji.com/fulani7.htm.

Fafunwa, A. B. (1995) History of Nigeria Education. Ibadan: N. P. S.







THE ROLES OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) IN ATTAINMENT OF LIFE LONG LEARNING AMONG ADULT LEARNERS IN ADULT BASIC EDUCATION (ABE) IN ANAMBRA STATE.

BY

IFEANYI T. UGWOEGBU, Ph. D,

JOHNSON NNADI EWELUM, M. Ed,

&

HELEN E. ADEBOLA, Ph. D.
DEPARTMENT OF ADULT EDUCATION
NNAMDI AZIKIWE UNIVERSITY, AWKA
ANAMBRA STATE


Abstract
This study intends to find out the roles of information and communication technology (ICT) in attainment of life learning among adult learners in Adult Basic Education (ABE) in Anambra State. One research question was formulated to guide the study. Three hundred adult learners were selected to form the sample through proportionate sample technique. Questionnaire was the instrument used for data collection. Mean scores were used in analyzing the data. The study, however, revealed among other things, that entertainment, promotion of educational exchange, promotion of information transfer facilitating textbooks, instruction, and curriculum etc are some of the roles of ICT in life long learning. Based on the findings, it was recommended that campaign should be mounted by government on the importance of computer literacy, should provide more trained and competent educators or personnel, reduce tax rate on these technologies, encourage ICT at home, among others.



The evolution and history of today’s computing system resulted from continued search for a tool that could enable man meet his computational and data processing needs such as the uses of fingers and toes, feeble and grains were enormous. These were later replaced by the use of chalk, pen, etc. To facilitate human efforts in counting, recording, classifying, manipulating, sorting, and presentation of information. Still, these methods were boring, time consuming, frustrating, cumbersome, and were also associated with errors (computer Awareness, 2004).
Civilization, science, and technology have trooped into the world and have brought with them computer. The impact of computer is felt almost in every part of the society for the attainment of life long learning which will eventually engender sustainable development. With industrialization and advancement of computer, information and communication technology was achieved world wide. Based on these elements, the world progressively moved from stone age into the industrial age and from industrial age into information age. The world today depends on information technology (Computer Awareness, 2002).
According to Ani and Oluka (2004), the term information and communication technology (ICT) is very vast in principles and even in applications. Others call it information science while others call it information technology. No matter the name used, there is only one mission. It describes the technologies that help reproduce, manipulate, store, communicate, disseminate, exchange, and use information in its various forms. Telephone, electronic database, laser discs, video, cameras, tape-recorders, CD-Roms, computer, design development, installation, and implementation of information systems and applications are all information technology. In the same vein, Anderson (1994) defined information and communication technology as the application of computers and communication equipment for automatic processing of information ie combination of computers, communication equipment (telephone, video-conferencing) and other technologies associated with automation can be generally classified as ICT.
Life long learning according to Ani (2003) is the learning that occurs as long as individual is alive. It is the education that an individual acquires from the time one is born to the time of death of the individual. As he continued, human beings continue learning throughout life in order to adapt to changing environment they meet in life. Looking at the whole of National and International communities, modern societies now depend heavily on automation of information processing. Computers are at the centre and are playing an increasing role in many forms of automation in communication Technology to engender life-long learning. This statement agrees with Fernandez (2001) that initially, the computer was used for administrative purposes such as maintaining student’s records and scheduling classes. But with the advents of information and communication technology, it is now applied to instruction. With information and communication technology, the amount of time and energy lost when researching are reduced to even seconds. At times for instance, with the internet, researchers in engineering, medicine, business application, etc are done with ease and less efforts which gives better results. It also agrees with Braisi (1997) that ICT can be used for efficient provision of course information, teaching materials, and locating discipline, specific information, specifically the interest which could be used to develop a course home page which can cover information about the course in question such as the syllabus exercises, literature references and instructor’s biography, links to relevant information at other web sites that may be useful to students in rural communities.

In Anambra State, adult learners in Adult Literacy Education cannot use nor operate computer. The rate of computer literacy acquisition is deteriorating because of a number of factors. Therefore, the focus and emphasis placed on the roles of ICT in attainment of life long learning in Anambra State makes the choice of this topic most appropriate and timely.

Research Question
One research question was posed to guide the study.
What are the roles of information and communication technology in attainment of life long learning among adult learners in adult Basic Education, Anambra state?

Method
The study adopted a survey research design. The population of the study consists of the entire adult learners in Adult Basic Education. Three Hundred (300) adult learners were selected as the sample through proportionate sampling technique. A constructed questionnaire titled “roles of information and communication technology in attainment of life-long learning among adult learners” was used. The instrument was validated to face validity by two experts in adult education and another two experts in measurement and evaluation. Comments from the experts were incorporated in the modification of the instrument. The reliability coefficient of the instrument was determined by using the split-half method. Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was used for the analysis. The reliability of the instrument was found to be 0.87. Thus, the instrument was highly reliable. Weighted mean of five-point Likert scale was used in the analysis of the data. Items which had mean rating of 3.00 and above were accepted.

Result
The data collected were presented in a table. The research question was analyzed using weighted mean.

Research Question:
What are the roles of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in attainment of life-long learning among adult learners in Adult Basic Education in Anambra State?

Mean responses on the roles of ICT in life-long learning among adult learners in Adult Basic Education, Anambra State.


S/No.
Roles of ICT
Mean
Decision
1
Supplementing textbooks, instruction and curriculum. 4.4 Accepted
2 Entertainment 4.4 Accepted
3 Facilitates students oriented learning 4.0 Accepted
4 Facilitates educational programmes 4.1 Accepted
5 Makes the implementation of referral services possible and easy 3.5 Accepted
6 Promotion of educational exchange 4.1 Accepted
7 Promotion of information transfer 3.5 Accepted


The above table reveals that all the items were generally accepted. This is an indication that all the items in the table were accepted as the roles of ICT in life-long learning.

Discussion
The results in the table of the study showed that all the item roles of ICT in attainment of life long learning were accepted. This shows that ICT performs considerable roles to people as long as they live. In line with this, clearly (1986) noted that ICT plays the role of supplementing textbooks, instruction and the regular curriculum taught by the educator. The educator introduces a topic and exercises or reviews materials previously introduced in the class wile the student/learner sits on a specially designed teletypewriter which is connected to the computer and does the instructions. Supporting his view, Broskett and Roger (1993) affirmed that the present advancement in ICT reveals the computer as capable of playing the important role in life long learning which has quickly become an indispensable tool for ensuring sustainable development. As they continued, ICT has created great awareness and skills of the computer technology by providing great responsibilities for one to learn and after that offered opportunities for teaching, review the curriculum they use with appropriate delivery mode. Adegboye (2000) also listed the roles of ICT as dyfusing photograph or X-ray products, entertainment, typing of letters, presenting peoples language and ways of life, etc.

Recommendations
Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations were made:

1. Campaign should be mounted by government on the importance of computer literacy especially on the younger generation to meet the demand of the computer age.
2. Government should provide more trained and competent educators or personnel. This should be followed by short courses, seminars, and workshops to improve their skills.
3. ICT should be encouraged at home to enable both the young and old ones have access to it.
4. Government should reduce tax rate on these technologies to ensure its availability in the rural areas.
5. Government should monitor equipment for communication technologies entering the country as it is obvious that obsolete and malfunctioning facilities are brought into the country.
6. Re-enforcement of national communication commission (NCC) in its capacity to manage and allocate spectrums to avoid clashing of telephone lines so that rural communities can have access to them.










References

Ani, R.O. (2003). An introductory Approach to The Study of Adult Education. Enugu: Donsinbad Communications.

Adegboye, S. (2000). “A new paradigm for teaching with technologies”. Journal of Development Education, 22(1) 36 – 37.

Ani, F. N. & Oluka, G. (2004). “Information Technology” The Aku Profile: A Journal of Diecva Foundation. 2(1) 206 – 214.

Anderson, R.G. (1994). Data Processing and Management
Information. System, 6th Edition. USA; Macadonald and Evans Plymonth.

Braisi, J. M. (1997). Computer Programme. New york: Macmillan publication co.

Briskett, c. & roger, M. (1993). Self Direction and Adult Learning
Perspective on Theory Research and Practice. London: Hieritia,

Clearly, C. I. (1986). Data Processing 7th Edition: Spothswode ballan:
Tyne Ltd Essex.

Compuer Awareness (2002). Intriduction to Computer and Operation Guide. Akure, Ondo: Ondo State Staff Development Centre.

Fernandez, M.v. (2001). “The EFL Teacher and the Introduction of
Multimedia in the classroom”. Call Journal. 14(1) 3 -14.















MARRIAGE AND FAMILY CYCLE TRENDS: MARITAL EXPERIENCE

BY

REV. FR DR. DAMIAN C. ANUKA
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FOUNDATION
NWAFOR ORIZU COLLEGE OF EDUCATION
NSUGBE, ANAMBRA STATE, NIGERIA.

Abstract.
The concept of family-life cycle is not a very familiar one to most Nigerian couples, even though it s an experience which every family passes through. It begins with the Founding Stage, which comprises of the period of courtship, engagement, and mate selection. This is followed by the Expansion Stage, which comprises of the arrival of children in the home, their upbringing and education. The third stage is the Dispersion Stage, when the children of the home have all grown and gone into the world in pursuance of their legitimate assignments and eventual founding of their own families. The last and final stage of family cycle is the Replacement Stage, when the spouses are once more left alone in the home after the departure of the children-this is known as the empty nest. If the couples at marriage have successfully passed through the other stages, and have successfully educated their children, they will now enjoy the fruit of their labor, and be happy in their old age. The death of one or both of the partners marks the final end of the family-life cycle.



The concept of family-life cycle may appear foreign to our Nigerian audience because it has not been so much talked about or discussed often in literature. However, it simply applies to what we go through in a normal life cycle of a family, which like every other thing has a beginning that grows and matures and finally disintegrates either by death or dissolution. According to Nock (1979), having a child, and watching the child grow up and go to college is a very important event with varied meanings to members of the family. To sociologists however, the events are marking-off points in the family “life cycle”. The birth of the first child in a family marks the beginning of a new stage in the life a family cycle. Similarly, when the last child of the family leaves home, the family enters into yet another stage of its life cycle. We shall now discuss briefly the various stages of family-life cycle.

Stages of Family-Life Cycle
According to Oroge (1987), there are four stages of family-life cycle, and these include:
1. The Founding Stage
2. The Stage of Expansion
3. The Dispersion Stage and
4. The Stage of Replacement.

The Founding Stage
Oroge (1987) indicates that founding stage is the cornerstone of the entire family-life cycle. It is the pillar on which the other stages are built. It is the period of courtship, engagement and mate selection. For prospective couples that hope to enjoy a successful and full family life cycle, this period is very crucial. All their activities and relationships at this stage should be trying to know in depth the character, the emotions, the interests, the likes and dislikes of each other, and this should be done with the high degree of openness, truthfulness, and trust. If at the end of this period, they decide to go ahead with marrying each other, such decision must be based on the reality of what they discovered in themselves, rather than on mere emotions and romantic love.

The Stage of Expansion
The second stage of family-life cycle is the stage of expansion. It is a period of child bearing, rearing, and education. For a couple that are unable to bear children, their own family life cycle ends at the founding stage. However, for those who are able to bear children, this is the most difficult stage in the family life cycle. It involves the feeding, clothing, housing and education of all the children born to the family, including their moral upbringing. However, Anuka (2000) warns that today, emphasis is no longer on the number of children born to a family, but on their proper care and education. Therefore parents on this stage of family development should pay great attention to family planning. They should ensure that they bring into the world only those children who they are capable of giving proper maintenance and education. This is because, if the children are properly maintained at this stage, and if they make proper use of all the opportunities provided for them, they will be adequately prepared for the next stage of the family-life cycle, which is the stage of dispersion.

The Dispersion Stage
This is as the name implies, a stage when all the children of the family have grown, and have gone into the world in pursuance of living their own lives, and founding of their own families. If they have been adequately prepared, and morally guided during the second stage of the family cycle, and if they have seriously utilized all the opportunities provided them at that stage, Anuka (2000), believes they will overcome any obstacle in living their own lives and establishing their own families. Most of our youth, today who are engaged in armed robbery, drug pushing, prostitution etc are those who did not either have a good upbringing, or who refused to make proper use of the opportunities provided them by their parents during the expansion stage.

The Stage of Replacement
This is the final and last stage of family development. It is a period when the husband and wife are left alone in the home after the departure of all the children. It is also known as the empty nest. At this stage, the spouses in marriage returns to their normal life of husband and wife alone, free from the responsibilities of father/mother. . According to Nwoye (1991), if they had successfully passed through the previous stages of family-life cycle, they will be happy and fulfilled for accomplishing their mission in the world. They will in turn enjoy the care of their children, who will now provide for them in their old age. And according to Oroge, the death of one or both of them marks the final end of the family life cycle.
Characteristics of Stages in Family-Life Cycle
According to Nock (1977), family-life cycle can serve as a predictor of various family events such as, family income and spending behavior in relation to the ages of the children in the home; issues of marital happiness; and marital adjustment or satisfaction, as it varies across the family-life cycle. Following these observations, he identified some of these characteristics closely knitted with different stages of family-life cycle.

Those in Later Stages of Family-Life Cycle
This group of people as Nock observed manifest the following characteristics:

a) They report more health problems more than those in other stages of family-life cycle. This is probably as a result old age and smaller incomes likely as a result or retirement.
b) They seem to understand their spouses better and their spouses understand them, similarly they do not seem to disagree frequently in financial matters.
c) They seem particularly positive in terms of satisfaction with one’s friends, living standard, dwelling homes, one’s main job, and with overall quality of life.
d) In general, individuals in later stages of the family life cycle can be characterized as satisfied and relatively happy individuals. All indications are that life is perceived as better by these individuals than those in early stages of the family-life cycle.

Those With or Without Children in the Home
To our African reading audience as Anuka (2000) indicates, the findings of Burr (1970), on the attitude of childless American couples, would not only sound strange, but would also be frowned at by a good majority of our people. This is because while in African communities, a childless marriage is often considered null and void, i.e. as no marriage at all, and while it is the source of constant friction and suspicion between couples, as well as the main cause of marital dissolution in Africa, it seems to be quite the opposite among the American childless couples. According to Knock the following attitudes are identified among them:
a) They appear to be most happily married.
b) They report that they infrequently contemplate divorce and rarely wish that they had married another individual than their spouse.
c) They absence of children is significantly related to the degree of satisfaction individuals report they derive from their marriage.
d) In terms of expressive dimensions of family life, individuals without children, appear exceedingly happy.
e) They report considerable companionship from their spouse; claim to understand and be understood by their spouse.
f) They rarely disagree over finances and find both their living standards and their dwelling satisfying.
g) For those of them who have had children, the absence of them appears to be good, in that such individuals report greater enjoyment from their parental role and are less likely to view their children as a problem.
h) Those who do not have children in their home are likely to be described as happier in many ways than those with children.
i) However, in terms of socialization, they seem unlikely to belong to voluntary associations and other extra-familiar groups than those with children. Therefore, they are somewhat more isolated from the larger community in terms of their participation in outside groups, and their desire to move rather than remain where they currently live (Nock, 1979).
Commenting on the above findings by Nock, Anuka (2000) reflected that such findings would sound metaphysical to our African readers to whom a childless marriage is to say the least an aberration. It is hoped however, that it would serve as an antidote to our current extreme African cultural position to childless couples, and help us adopt a kinder and more pathetic attitude towards them. This is because as American couples have demonstrated above, that begetting children is not in the first instance a condition for entering into a marriage contract, but first and foremost for a mutual help and co-operation. We should borrow a leaf from the American p society, and spare our millions of childless couples from their daily ordeal of ridicule and embarrassment.

Those with Longer Period of Married Life
Nock (1979) also observed that in stages of family life, those couple that had lived together for a longer period of time than others, are known to exhibit the following characteristics:
a) They tend to manifest health problems more frequently than those who had married for only a few years, as would be expected.
b) They tend to live in larger dwellings, possibly because of their better financial situation, and perhaps the presence of more children.
c) They express that one understands his/her spouse well
d) They are less likely to disagree over financial matters, possibly indicating the fact that there is less scarcity of income overtime.
e) They are happier with their living standard and their dwelling, they also appear to have more money and therefore enjoy a better standard of living.
The implications of these findings are both revealing and interesting. It indicates that couples at marriage who had lived a longer period of married life are happier in their marriage; they understand themselves better; and they enjoy a better quality of life than those who had lived a shorter period of married life together. Those couples therefore, who are still in their early stages of family life with its attendant problems of child birth, child rearing and education, should not give up hope in their marriage. This is because as the above findings have shown happier days of married life still awaits them as they advance in years in marriage.

Conclusion
In this paper the issue of family-life cycle and its implications for the Nigerian couples was discussed. Its concept was briefly defined, and its different stages were considerably reviewed. Also considerably considered were some of the characteristics of the stages of family cycle, and these include: Those in later stages of family-life cycle; those with or without children; and those with longer period of life.

References

Anuka, D.C. (2000), A handbook For Marriage Education and Counseling. Onitsha: Fidelity Education Books Publishers Ltd.

Blood, R.O. & Wolf, D.M. (1960), Husband and Wives: The Dynamics of Married Living
New York: The free Press.

Nock, S. L. (1979), “The family-Life Cycle: Empirical or Conceptual Tool”Journal of Marriage and Family. Feb. pp. 15-25.

Nwoye, A. (1991), Marriage and family Counseling. Jos:Fab. Anieh. Educational Books Publishers Ltd.

Oroge, S.A. (1989), “Family-Life Education for Adolescents Through Formal School Sector: The Nigerian Experience”. Population Education Information Series. No.3




















TEACHING STRATEGIES ENABLING LEARNING FOR CHILDREN EXPERIENCING READING DIFFICULTIES. IN ANAMBRA STATE.

BY

ANYACHEBELU FAITH EBELE (Ph.D),

OBUMNEKE – OKEKE I.M.
DEPARTMENT OF EARLY CHILDHOOD AND PRIMARY EDUCATION
NNAMDI AZIKIWE UNIVERSITY, AWKA NIGERIA.

&

ANYAMENE, ADA (Ph.D)
DEPARTMENT OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING
NNAMDI AZIKIWE UNIVERSITY, AWKA – NIGERIA


Abstract
Reading difficulties is a learning problem that affects learners which teachers are expected to tackle to meet the learning needs of affected learners. The study therefore investigated the teaching strategies that enable teachers assist children experiencing reading difficulties with a view to helping such children achieve reading proficiency to acquire knowledge and skills like normal learners. The area of the study was Awka Education Zone. The scope of the study covered teachers’ knowledge of learner reading-behaviours that show children experiencing difficulties with reading and the strategies they perceive appropriate for assisting affected children achieve reading proficiency. All the primary school teachers constituted the population while simple random sampling technique was used to select one thousand teachers (500 urban, 500 rural). Two research questions, two null hypotheses, a 30-item researchers-developed, duly validated and reliability tested questionnaire structured on 4-point rating scales guided the study. Findings revealed that both urban and rural teachers lack good knowledge of learner reading behaviours that show children experiencing reading difficulties; they also have little knowledge of the strategies they can use to assist children experiencing reading difficulties achieve proficiency in reading. This implies that children experiencing reading difficulties do not receive instructional attention that would facilitate learning for them. Based on the findings the researchers recommended that pre-service teacher’s education curriculum be expanded to include study of learning problems and strategies teachers can use to handle such problems to assist children experiencing such problems learn effectively.


Reading to a large extent is the activity of the learner and it is the main activity from which the totalities of knowledge and skill acquisition hinge on. The role of the teacher is to direct and build strong framework that propels the learner throughout the learning period and after; where the teacher fails to achieve this goal, the learner suffers a serious set back from poor performance in school work to frustration which may result in dropping out of school. In countries where English is the first language such individuals speak well but might not write or read well. This experience lasts throughout life and it can create a whole lot of gaps between such individuals and their peers in the wider society. The situation is completely different in countries that have English as their school language. Reading difficulties have and is still receiving attention from educational psychologists all over the world (Elliot, Travers, Karotchil and LittleCook, 2002; Woolfolk, 2006; Kristo and Bamford, 2007; Omrod, 2008, Frey and Glascoe, 2006). Experts are particularly interested in reading difficulties because of its effect on the future of affected children whose case would have been successfully dealt with had the teacher detected it on time. Reading difficulties and dyslexia have been expressed as one and the same learning problem (Kiel, 2002 and Chitle, 2004); other studies show that they are separate and distinct problems experienced by learners (Elliot et al 2002 and Stanovich, 1988). These psychologists believe that dyslexia results from differences in how the brain processes written and spoken language while reading difficulties results from non-neurological deficiency with vision or hearing; and from poor or inadequate reading instructions. Many external factors such as parental education and financial status, unstimulating home environment and inadequate and inappropriate classroom instruction can pose reading difficulties to children. Other factors include mental retardation: low IQ and hearing impairment which can contribute to environmental factors or independently cause reading difficulties (Hamilton and Glascoe, 2006). Studies have shown that reading difficulties is one problem that to a great extent adversely affects the total performance of affected children throughout their education life if not addressed (Meadows, 2009; Chall, 1996; Kaplan, 1995). Chall emphasizes that reading difficulties hinder learners’ education progress in learning academic content in all areas. In a recent study carried out in America by the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP, (2007); 36 percent of fourth graders and 27 percent of twelfth graders cannot read at the basic level. They lack comprehension skills, they cannot extract the general meaning or make obvious connections between the text and their own experiences or make simple inferences from the text. This study also found out that reading difficulties is more common in boys than in girls and are substantially more common in minority children. The Nigerian situation is not different (Olirie, 2007). Olirie’s study reports that more than 80 percent of primary school learners in Nigeria cannot read effectively. It is worrisome because reading proficiency is the backbone on which knowledge and skills acquisition depends. The role of the classroom teacher is enormous involving not only imparting knowledge and skills; it also involves classroom management. These roles which incorporate social, emotional and psychological needs of learners; also involves close monitoring of learner reading-behaviours to identify problems that may hinder achievement of reading proficiency which in turn would inhibit acquisition of knowledge and skills. The difficulty in identifying reading difficulties in children lies in the fact that some normal children also exhibit those reading behaviours that characterize difficulties in reading. Woolfolk (2004) opines that reading difficulties increase as the child progresses to higher classes because of the enlarged vocabularies and the complexities of the learning tasks. The extent to which teachers know that some children in their class who cannot read fluently is as a result of experiencing difficulties with reading not carelessness or laziness; and teachers’ realization that these category of children need certain types of teaching strategies to help them achieve reading proficiency and facilitate learning for them; remain issues for serious attention. Reading difficulties are common and the prevalence is high (Olirie, 2007); attention in the learning process should be shifted to this learning problem that has continued to silently undermine the efforts of learners to achieve reading proficiency to facilitate knowledge and skills acquisition. The purpose of the study is to find out the teaching strategies enabling learning for children experiencing reading difficulties. Specifically it sought to investigate;
1. Teachers’ knowledge of learner reading-behaviours that show reading difficulties.
2. The strategies teachers perceive appropriate for assisting affected learners achieve proficiency in reading.

Research Questions
The following research questions guided the study
1. What learner reading-behaviours show a learner experiencing difficulties with reading?
2. What strategies do teachers perceive appropriate for assisting children experiencing difficulties with reading achieve proficiency?

Null hypotheses
The following null hypotheses guided the study at 0.05 level of significance
1. Teachers in urban and rural areas will have no significant difference in their knowledge of learner reading-behaviours that show learners experiencing difficulties with reading.
2. Teachers in urban and rural areas will have no significant difference in their perceptions of teaching strategies they can use to assist children experiencing difficulties with reading achieve proficiency.

Methodology
The design of the study was survey. The area of the study was Awka Education Zone. Two research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. All the primary school teachers in the area of study constituted the population for the study. Simple random sampling technique was used to select ten urban and ten rural schools. It was also used to select fifty teachers each from the selected urban and rural schools. This therefore brought the total sample size to one thousand. A 30 item researchers-developed questionnaire structured on four point rating scales of Strongly Agree (4points), Agree (3points), Disagree (2points) and Strong Disagree (1point) was used to collect the data used for the study. The instrument had three parts A, B and C. Part A sought such demographic information as name of school, local government area and location of school; part B sought teachers’ knowledge of learner reading-behaviours that show experiencing difficulties with reading while part C sought teachers’ perception of teaching strategies that can assist learners experiencing difficulties with reading achieve proficiency. The instruments were validated by experts in educational psychology. Cronbach Alpha was used to establish the internal consistency of the items. It yielded the reliability values. 0.76 and 0.87, the reliability values were high and so the instruments were used for the study. Five trained research assistants including the researchers collected the data used for the study. Mean scores were used for analyzing the research questions. Mean values of 2.50 and above were accepted, below 2.50 were rejected, t-test was used to test the null hypotheses.

Results
The results are presented in the order of the research questions






























Research question one

Table 1: Urban and rural teachers’ mean responses measuring their knowledge of learner reading-behaviours showing children experiencing difficulties with reading.


Items Urban teachers Rural teachers

A child is said to be experiencing reading difficulties if the following learner reading-behaviours are persistently exhibited X DECISION X DECISION
1. Reads with prompting 2.56 Accepted 2.62 Accepted
2. Cannot sound out unknown words but knows Phonies 2.35 Rejected 2.27 Rejected
3. Inserting letters 2.33 Rejected 2.54 Accepted
4. Reads very slowly 2.68 Accepted 2.58 Accepted
5. Becomes visibly tired after reading for only a short time 2.55 Accepted 2.32 Rejected
6. Substitutes words and sounds 2.21 Rejected 2.33 Rejected
7. Reverse letters 2.71 Accepted 2.61 Accepted
8 Omits words or letters 2.48 Rejected 2.51 Accepted
9. Misspells high frequency sight words (pronouns) 2.44 Rejected 2.40 Rejected
10. Cannot get most spellings when copying from the board or book 2.41 Rejected 2.32 Rejected
11. Numerous erasures on written work 2.26 Rejected 2.19 Rejected
12. Poor reading comprehension 2.11 Rejected 2.56 Accepted
13. Fidgeting hands and voice 2.55 Accepted 2.61 Accepted
14. Unable to decode syllables or single words 2.81 Accepted 2.51 Accepted
15. Unable to associate single words or syllables with specific sounds 2.36 Rejected 2.41 Rejected


Table 1 above shows that teachers in urban and rural areas have little knowledge of learner reading-behaviours that show experiencing difficulties with reading. Out of fifteen items urban teachers know only six items. These are items, 1, 4, 5, 7, 13 and 14. They scored mean values 2.56, 2.68, 2.55, 2.71, 2.55 and 2.81 respectively. The rest of the items were rejected, all of them scored mean values below 2.50. Teachers in rural areas know only eight items. These are items 1, 3, 4, 7, 8, 12, 13 and 14. They scored mean values 2.62, 2.54, 2.58, 2.61, 2.51, 2.56, 2.61 and 2.51 respectively. The rest of the items were rejected, all of them scored mean values below 2.50



Research question two
Table 2: Urban and rural teachers mean responses on the strategies they perceive appropriate for assisting children experiencing difficulties with reading achieve proficiency

Items Urban teachers Rural teachers

X DECISION X DECISION
1 Give individualized attention 2.36 Rejected 2.41 Rejected
2. Read aloud to children 2.69 Accepted 2.53 Accepted
3. Use audio-visual materials 2.43 Rejected 2.47 Rejected
4. Give homework assignment 2.51 Accepted 2.60 Accepted
5. Teach phonemes (individual sounds) 2.66 Accepted 2.58 Accepted
6. Use letter cards (manipulative) 2.40 Rejected 2.36 Rejected
7. Teach phonics (sound spelling relationship) 2.50 Accepted 2.52 Accepted
8. Create opportunities for independent and group reading 2.49 Rejected 2.35 Rejected
9. Use incentives for reinforcement and motivation to foster love for reading 2.51 Accepted 2.30 Rejected
10. Teach reading and writing simultaneously 2.21 Rejected 2.38 Rejected
11. Encourage children to read aloud 2.45 Rejected 2.33 Rejected
12. Introduce use of computer games designed for sound/word play 2.34 Rejected 2.40 Rejected
13. Associate sounds with concrete objects 2.42 Rejected 2.46 Rejected
14. Teach children self-questioning 2.31 Rejected 2.26 Rejected
15. Encourage children to read story books that catch their interest 2.54 Accepted 2.62 Accepted


Table 2 above shows that both urban and rural teachers disagree with the same items. These are items 1, 3, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14. For urban teachers these items scored 2.36, 2.43, 2.40, 2.49, 2.21, 2.45, 2.34 2.42 and 2.31 respectively. Rural teachers scored 2.41, 2.47, 2.36, 2.35, 2.30, 2.38, 2.33, 2.40. 2.46 and 2.26 respectively.



Hypotheses
Hypothesis one
Table 3: t-test comparison of mean responses of urban and rural teachers on learner reading-behaviour that show children experiencing reading difficulties

Respondents N X
SD DF t-cal t-crit. Prob Decision
Urban
500 2.7 0.56 980 0.52 1.86 P>0.05 Null hypothesis
Rural 500 2.8 0.53 Accepted


Table 3 above showed that t-calculated is less than t-critical at 980 degree of freedom. Therefore there is no significant difference between the responses of urban and rural teachers on learner reading-behaviours that show children experiencing difficulties with reading. The null hypothesis is therefore accepted.



Hypothesis two
Table 4: t-test comparison of mean responses of urban and rural teachers on strategies they perceive appropriate for assisting children experiencing difficulties with reading achieve proficiency.

Respondents N X
SD DF t-cal t-crit. Prob Decision
Urban
500 2.5 0.54 980 1.41 1.74 P>0.05 Null hypothesis
Rural 500 2.3 0.5 Accepted


Table 4 above showed that t-calculated is less than t-critical at 980 degree of freedom. Therefore there is no significant difference between the responses of urban and rural teachers’ perception on the strategies they can use to assist children experiencing difficulties with reading to achieve reading proficiency. The null hypothesis is therefore accepted.

Discussion
The results of research question one showed that both urban and rural teachers disagree with the same items as learner reading-behaviours that show children experiencing difficulties with reading. Hypothesis one also showed that there is no significant difference between the responses of urban and rural teachers on learner reading-behaviours that show children experiencing difficulties with reading. These findings collaborate the work of Ithe (2004), who found out in his study that poor curriculum content not only produces teachers with narrow knowledge of learning problems of leaners but also affect teachers’ ability to identify these problems in learners. For urban and rural teachers to give the same response is symbolic. The teachers’ education curriculum may not have equipped them with the ability to identify reading difficulties in learners. This lapse has serious implications for the affected learners and the education system. Teachers might take children exhibiting behaviours showing experiencing reading difficulties to be unserious with learning and so such children would not receive the type of attention expected from their teachers; and they will grow with the problem. Unfortunately, this problem affects the individual for life and it is correctable. A great many of school drop-outs in the world today are people who suffered this learning problem. It affects general performance and becomes complicated as the individual progresses to higher class because of the complex nature of learning tasks and increased vocabulary. It is important to note that an individual who cannot read finds it difficult to write. This explains why it affects the general performance of affected children; frustrate them and result in their consequent drop-out from school. Teachers should seriously watch out for difficulty with rhyming games, difficulty learning the alphabets, difficulty learning to associate sounds with letters, failure to recognize the letters of alphabet by the start of kindergarten and delayed or impaired speech or language; they are indicators of risk of future reading difficulties (Hamilton & Glascoe, 2006). The findings of research question two showed that teachers perceived few numbers of items as strategies that could assist children experiencing difficulties with reading achieve proficiency. Result of hypothesis two showed that there is no significant difference between the responses of urban and rural teaches on strategies that could assist children experiencing difficulties with reading achieve proficiency. Unud (2003) in his study of classroom behaviour and teacher’s intervention opines that teachers sometimes address learning problems unknowingly with their methods. All the items in research question two are strategies for assisting children experiencing difficulties with reading achieve proficiency. Taking note of individual learner’s classroom reading behaviours for early intervention against observed learning problems and varying of methods would achieve greatly in this respect. Teachers should simultaneously teach reading and writing; this method equips children better to read. Meadows (2009) after many years of research in the development of language and literacy skills with children came up with the principle that children learn to read easily if they are first taught to write. Writing helps children get better mental picture of the sound being written, it makes them become more able to encode letters faster in the memory which comes as a result of several practice of writing through the process of errors and correction. Teaching writing and reading simultaneously therefore gives a child a great learning experience because children derive pleasure repeating learning activities. Read aloud is one strategy that prepares children’s ears for distinguishing sounds, trains them to sit still for longer time and to be fluent readers; it also encourages both independent and group reading. Use of computer games helps children build vocabulary because it affords varieties of games with both letters and words. Teachers should provide concrete objects representing the different sounds. Every learner enjoys and makes much meaning learning with instructional materials. Learners grasp information better when they see, feel and touch instructional materials; children are best suited to be given this opportunity. Using objects to learn keep children active and absorbed in the learning process. Active engagement in the learning process makes children concentrate for longer periods of time (Estes, 2004); in this way the individual is unconsciously being trained to develop good study habit. Children from kindergarten should be encouraged to read story books especially ones that catch their interest. Montessori (1967) asserts that the child chooses what he wants for his own use, and works with it according to his own needs, tendencies and special interest; in this way, the learning material becomes a means of growth. The teacher has a lot of roles to play for the sake of assisting learners especially those experiencing reading difficulties thrive; identifying children experiencing reading difficulties is one of those roles.

Recommendation
The curriculum of instruction for teacher education should be expanded by the government to accommodate learning problems. This idea is an important one for those children who suffer such learning problems that do not require special education and who are found in classrooms with normal children. Such training will equip teachers with the skills to identify reading difficulties and other related learning problems. A lot of children are affected by this problem and teachers do nor know. For teachers who are already in the field, it is important that government organizes workshops and seminars to teach them learning problems and strategies for assisting affected children learn. Parents should be part of their children’s educational growth. It will afford them the opportunity to observe their learning behaviours. In this way parents would partner with teachers to give affected children the needed solid foundation in achieving reading proficiency.

Conclusion
Reading is a learner activity but not without the guidance of the teacher. Such guidance builds the foundation for reading proficiency. The extent to which this is achieved depends on the teacher’s ability to observe learning problems especially difficulties with reading and provide early intervention.



References

Chall, J.S. (1996). Stages of development. New York: Harcourt Brace College Publishers

Chitle, T. (2004). Learning to read. Awka: JBooks Ltd.

Elliot, S.N., Travers, J., Karotchill, T. & Little Cook, P. (2002). Effective teaching: effective learning. Boston: McGraw Hill.

Estes, L.S. (2004). Essentials of child care and early education. Boston: Pearson Education

Freu, N. & Fisher, D. (2007). Reading for information in elementary school. New Jersey: Merrill Prentice Hall.

Hamilton, S.S. & Glascoe, F.P. (2006). Evaluation of children with reading difficulties http://www.aaf.porg/afp/20061215/2079.html.

Ithe, D. (2004). Diverse needs of learners. Onitsha: Pillar House.

Kiel, C. (2002). What is dyslexia? Awka: Omep.

Kristo, J.V. Bamford, R.A. (2004). A comprehensive framework for helping students become independent readers. K-6 New York: Schorlastic.

McLaugh, M. & Devoogd, G.L. (2004). Critical literacy: enhancing student’s comprehension of text. New York: Schorlastic.

Meadow, F.L. (2009). What you can do about reading. Kennesaw; KSU,

Montessori, M. (1967). The discovery of the child. New York: Ballantine Books.

National Assessment of Educational Progress (2007). US Education Department.

Olirie, G. (2007). Survey study of reading problems. Nsugbe Pap House.

Ormrod, J.E. (2007). Educational psychology: developing learners. Boston: Pearson Education.

Oro, J. (2007). Curriculum for pre-service teachers. India: VJay.

Stanovich, K.E. (1988). Exploring the differences between the dyslexic and the garden-variety poor reader: the phonological core variable difference model Journal of Learning Disabilities. Vol. 35(8) pp.36-87.

Unud, F. (2007). Learning problems and teachers’ intervention. India: VJay.

Woolfork, A. (2004). Educational Psychology. Boston: Allyn and Bacon



















PARENTS’ AND STUDENTS’ PERCEPTION OF THE POST JAMB SCREENING EXAMINATION/TEST.

BY

JOSEPH C. NNADOZIE

AND

VIVIAN N. NWOGBO
FACULTY OF EDUCATION
NNAMDI AZIKIWE UNIVERSITY
AWKA.


Abstract
In recent times, universities administer post JAMB screening examinations as a basis for the admission of students. Considering the problems involved, one is not certain whether parents and students approve of this practice. This study set out to find out their stand on this matter. Through the simple random sampling technique 3,400 students from 45 secondary schools and 3,400 parents were selected for the study. The questionnaire was the major tool for data collection. Data were analyzed through the mean score and percentage computations. The results showed that both parents and students were not in favour of administering the post JAMB screening tests, and urged that university admission processes should be left to the universities. The result were discussed and it was recommended that universities should take complete charge of their admission processes.


As a matter of policy, Nigerian students who seek admission into the universities are offered admission if they meet the necessary requirements. To determine the status of those seeking admission, examination are administered. Hammond & Ancess (1996) believed that any examination depends on need and universities see for selecting students who are able to cope with university education. It is this kind of examination that Maduas & Kellaghan (1992) sees as forming a basis for determining what people know or what people can accomplish.
Over the years, universities in Nigeria have conducted their individual examinations for the admission of students except for those seeking direct entry.
Suddenly, the joint Admission and Matriculation Board (JAMB) were put in place to take charge of university admissions nation wide. It conducted the examination, marked the examination scripts, release the results and placed successful students into universities of their 1st, 2nd or 3rd choices.
Only the government and politicians can say, for certain why JAMB was created. It would be argued that the body was created to maintain standards in admission. Others could also argue that the process would help to maintain National Unity since a student would be free to attend university in any part of the country. But how far standards have been maintained and national unity fostered is yet to be determined.
In any case, whether the entrance examination was conducted by the universities or by JAMB the known ultimate objective, using the ideas of Madaus and kellaghan (1995) was to determine the preparedness of the students to be able to cope with university academic work and programmes.

Statement of problem
Prior to 1977 the thirteen (13) universities in Nigeria (NUC, 2004) conducted and directed their own admissions. When JAMB came, it brought along in its train massive examination misconduct. For this reason many students usually had incredible high scores which could not be said to correlate with their intelligence quotience. These kinds of students were on the high side, and occupied almost all available space in the universities. It would appear that this trend persisted and was observed over time, until courageous university administrators settled for the post JAMB screening tests/examination after reaching some compromise with the NUC and JAMB.
It is obvious that two stretch examination for one admission is likely to heat hand on both students and parents for obvious reasons.
The purpose of this study was therefore to find out from students and a cross section of parents what they think about taking the JAMB examination as well as the post JAMB screening test as a pre-condition for admission into the university.

The study was carried out in Enugu State amongst final year senior secondary school students and amongst a cross section of parents who have some stake in the universities.
Research Questions
The following research questions guided the study:
1. Do prospective university students support the administration of post JAMB examination as done now?
2. Do parents of prospective university students support the administration of post JAMB examination as done now?
3. What form do prospective university students say that admission processes should take?
4. What form do parents of prospective university students say that admission processes should take?

Methodology:
A survey design was used. All samples were taken through the simple random process. There were six education zones in Enugu State-namely, Obollo Afor, Nsukka, Enugu, Awgu, Udi, Agbani.
Three education zones were taken for the study, namely- Nsukka, Enugu and Awgu. Nsukka had three Local Government Areas-Nsukka with 29 schools, Igbo Etiti with 15 schools and Uzo Uwani with 13 schools. A sample of 5 schools was taken from each of the Local Governments. 15 schools were therefore taken fom Nsukka education zone.
Enugu education zone had 3 Local Government Areas-Enugu East with 10 secondary schools, Enugu South with 10 secondary schools and Isi-Uzo with 08 secondary schools. A sample of 5 schools was taken from each of the Local Governments 15 schools were also taken from Enugu Education zone.
Awgu Education zone had 3 Local Governments as well – namely Aninri with 14 schools, Oji-River with 12 schools and Awgu with 27 schools. A sample of 5 schools was taken from each of the Local Government here. Thus, 15 schools were taken from Awgu Education zone. Therefore a total of 45 secondary schools were selected for the study.











Table 1
Sample of schools taken from the Education zones of Nsukka, Enugu and Awgu.

Education Local No of schools Sample
Zone Govt.
Nsukka Igbo Etiti 15 5
Uzo Uwani 13 5
Nsukka 29 5
Total 57 Total 15
Enugu Enugu East 10 5
Enugu South 10 5
Isi-Uzo 08 5
Total 28 Total 15
Awgu Aninri 14 5
Oji-River 12 5
Awgu 27 5
Total 53 Total 15
Total sample of schools = 45


Students
Six streams of SSS III students were discovered in nearly all the 45 schools with each stream having some 60 registered students. 360 SSS III students were generally found in each school. A sample of 80 students was taken from each school and in all the schools, 3600 students were used as the size sample for the study.

Parents
The parents of the student included in the sample of students were the one studied 3,600 in number. The instrument was given to the students to administer to their parents or guardians.

Method of data collection
Two sets of questionnaire titled Questionnaire on Post JAMB Screening Examination (QPJSE) was constructed by the researchers. One of them even though almost of equivalent content was meant for the students and the other was meant for the parents. They were structured along line the modified 4-point Likert scale of Strongly Agree (4 point) Agree (3 points) Disagree (2 points) and Strongly Disagree (1 point). 12 research assistants who were instructed on the processes of administering and collecting the questionnaire were used for this purpose. Out of 3600 questionnaires meant for the students only 3,500 were returned and out of this only 3,400 were useful. Only 3, 400 of parents questionnaire were returned.
The questionnaires were validated by three persons who were conversant with the subject of study. This is what Garrett (1967) called competence judgment and is acceptable.
Reliability in this case was determined through the test-retest method and this yielded reliability indices of 0.80 and 0.81 respectively.

Data Analysis
Simple percentages and mean scores computations were the major statistical tools for data analysis. Any item that had a mean score of 2.50 and above was regarded as agreement while any below 2.50 was regarded as disagreement by the respondents. Only mean scores were used for computing parents’ result.

Results
From the percentage computation, it was observed that 2,400 or 70.50% of the students were opposed to Post JAMB screening examination. 3,200 or 94% said that the screening test was an affront to JAMB. 3,400 or 100% said the screening test imposed extra burden on students. 2,800 or 82% said the screening examination did not guarantee quality students. 2,100 of the students said the screening tests encouraged the manipulation of grades. 2,400 or 70.50% advocated for the abolition for the screening tests. 2,400 of the students rejected the idea that universities should be in charge of enlisting students into the universities.

















Table II
Percentage computation of students reaction to the items of investigation.

S/N Items No of students No by support %age No of opposed % age
1. Support for screening exams 3,400 1,000 29% 2,400 70.50
2. Attacking the credibility of JAMB 3,400 3,200 94% 200 5.8%
3. Extra burden on students 3,400 3,400 100% -- --
4. Encourage manipulation of exam scores 3,400 2,100 62% 1,300 38%
5. Screening test to be abolished. 3,400 2,400 70.5% 1000 29.41
6. Screening tests does not guarantee quality students. 3,400 2,800 82% 600 2.0%
7. Universities should carry through the process of her admission. 3,400 1,000 29.41 2,400 70.5


To give further credibility to the results, the means scores were also computed. This computation confirmed the earlier views of students on the subject of study.















Table III
Mean scores of students reactions to the items of study

S/N
Items No of respondents SA A D SD Mean Decision
1. Screening test should continue. 3,400 600 400 2100 300 2.38 Disagree
2. Attacked the credibility of JAMB 3,400 2,000 1,200 150 50 3.51 Agree
3. Screening exams are extra burden on students 3,400 1,920 1,480 -- -- 3.85 Agree
4. Encourages the manipulation of scores 3,400 1,500 600 900 400 2.94 Agree
5. Screening test produced quality students 3,400 1,900 900 400 200 3.20 Agree
6. Abolition of screening tests 3,400 2,400 500 250 250 3.35 Agree
7. Universities should process their admissions 3,400 1,500 500 2,000 400 2.2 Disagree


The mean computation confirmed the earlier results.
Results for the parents: Only mean score computation was used here.

















Table IV
Mean scores of parent’s responses to the items of study

S/N Items No of respondents SA A D SD Mean Decision
1. Support for the screening tests 3,400 500 400 2,000 500 2.21 Disagree
2. Screening test attacked the credibility of JAMB 3,400 3,000 200 200 -- 3.1 Agree
3. Extra burden on parents 3,400 3,400 -- -- 3.2 Agree
4. Encourages the manipulation of scores 3,400 200 200 2,000 1,000 2.3 Disagree
5. Guarantees quality students 3,400 2,000 1,000 200 200 3.4 Agree
6. The screening tests to be abolished 3,400 500 500 2,400 -- 2.67 Agree
7. Universities should conduct their own entrance exams independent of JAMB 3,400 3,400 -- -- -- 3.12 Agree


The result showed that in the circumstances, they do not support the screening examination; that it attacked the credibility of JAMB; that it was an extra burden on parents even though they agreed that it produced quality students. They agreed that the screening tests be abolished, while universities should be given a free hand to process its own entrance examinations.

Discussion of Results
If this study had not been carried out, it would have been difficult to know the thoughts of students and their parents about the Post JAMB screening tests. The students had said that they do not support the administration of Post JAMB screening tests because it imposed extra burdens on them, that the exams did not guarantee quality students, that it encouraged manipulation of scores, and held the view that JAMB should continue with the work of processing student’s admission to the universities. The students were talking as students. They would not want another examination after they had suffered so much mentally, physically and emotionally to go through the JAMB examinations. Moreover they would ask the question whether JAMB is not doing her work creditably and would actually see the universities as attacking the credibility of JAMB. These students see the universities as independent and would offer admissions to whoever it pleases them to do so, and this, they believe, could only be done through the manipulation of post JAMB screening test results. In this case the screening test would not guarantee quality students. In fact, the students could feel that the credibility of JAMB is being placed on the line. But it could be possible that they would want JAMB to continue because of the laxity which JAMB inadvertently affords them for examination misconduct. The present writers cannot say how the students arrange their examination misconduct here, but they really arrange to cheat. Even with the presence of law enforcement agents, the students still cheat and could further hire outsides to write the exams for them. JAMB is aware of this massive cheating and that is usually why JAMB results of many centres are cancelled. The reasons given by students to keep JAMB on their work are reasonable, but one is inclined to believe that with the Post JAMB screening tests in place, they the students, would loose the chances of massive cheating and admissions would be more difficult for them.
As for the parents, they too disapproved of the screening tests. Like the students, the parents felt that the universities are questioning the credibility of JAMB, and that extra emotional and financial burden are placed on them through the administration of the screening tests. They also are of the opinion that quality students are guaranteed by the screening tests. The highlight of their thinking is that the universities should be given a free hand to administer their admission processes. One way not conclude that the universities are questioning the credibility of JAMB because both universities, the National Universities Commissions and JAMB must have reached an understanding. It could be possible that because of the massive examination misconduct which JAMB inadvertently allows students to engage in, parents feel that JAMB does not guarantee quality students, but believes that the screening tests gives this guarantee of quality students. If the parents believe that the screening tests could guarantee quality students that would be all the more reasons why they think that the universities should handle their admission processes. For parents, this admission process would revive the universities. With the admission of quality students by the universities themselves, serious academic activities would attend lectures, avoid gangterism, cultism and in the end responsible university graduates would be produced. This would be unlike today when some undergraduates cannot defend their studentship, and are of very bad behaviour generally.
In the years past, at least, prior to 1977 universities administered and managed their admission process. The institutions considered available hostel space, classroom space at least, the laboratories, the libraries and all other facilities, and she offered admissions to only those who can be accommodated. There was then no overcrowding as it is today, and students then lived a relatively comfortable life. Furthermore, by and large, a group of relatively responsible students would be admitted. This would be those who would be careful about their exams and their results and would abhor carrying over of courses. The present writers are of the view that if the universities handle their admissions themselves, the universities would again return to the era which can be proudly referred to as the “good old days”

Recommendations
Following the discussions above, the following recommendations are proposed:
a. The Post JAMB screening test should be abolished.
b. Nigerian Universities should be allowed to administer and manage their admission processes.

Conclusion
This study had given one the opportunity to know the thinking of parents and students about the Post JAMB screening tests. It is being concluded that a return to the past of university education will do both students and their parents a lot of good.


References

Federal Republic of Nigeria (1992) “Higher Education in the Nineties and beyond”. A report of the Commission on the Review of Higher Education in Nigeria.

Garret, A.E. (1962) Statistics in Psychology and Education. London: Longman Green & Co. Ltd.

Hammond, Linda Awling and Ancess, Jacqueline (1996) “Authentic Assessment and Social Development” in Joan Boy Koft Baron and Dennice Plamer Wofl, eds. Performance Based Student Assessment: Challenge and Possibilities. Ninety fifith year Books of the National Society for the study Education. Chicago University of Chicago Press.

Madaus,George F,and Kellaghan, Thomas (1992) “Curriculum Evaluation and Assessment” in Philip W. Jackson ed. Handbook of Research in Curriculum. New York Macmillan Publishing Company.

Madaus, G.F and Kallaghan, T (1995) “Curriculum Evaluation And Assessment” in Willam F. Piner, William M. Reynolas, Patrick Slattery and Pete M. Taubmen, Understanding Curriculum, New York: Peter Lang.

Tanner Daniel and Laurel Tanner (1975) Curriculum Development. Theory into Practice. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co. Inc.

Northern and Sanders (1987) Educational Evaluation: Alternative Approaches and Practical Guidelines, 2nd ed. New York, Longman.

Loheeler, D.K. (1972) The Curriculum Process, London: The University Press Ltd.























SELECTED SPORTS DELIVERY SYSTEM AS PREDICTORS OF SPORTS DEVELOPMENT IN OYO, OGUN AND LAGOS STATE COLLEGES OF EDUCATION

BY

OGU OKEY CHARLES Ph.D
DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION NNAMDI AZIKIWE UNIVERSITY,
AWKA

AND

ANANOMO, LEONARD ESHIEMOGIE Ph.D
DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION
NNAMDI AZIKIWE UNIVERSITY,
AWKA


Abstract
The study examined selected sports delivery systems as predictors of sports development in Oyo, Ogun and Lagos State Colleges of Education. Descriptive survey research design was used for the study. The population consists of all the members of the sports committees/council, coaches and athletes of the College of Education. Multi state sampling techniques was utilized for the study. Purposive sampling techniques was used to select the respondents. While stratified random techniques was used to select 1,234 respondents. A self designed questionnaire made of four point rating scale of Strongly Agree (SA), Agree (A), Disagree (D) and Strongly Disagree (SD) was used for data collection. The instrument was pre-tested and reliability coefficient of 0.32 was obtained. Inferential statistics of multi regression was used for data analysis at 0.05 level of significance. Based on the findings, conclusion and recommendations were given.


Sport is a generic term used to cover all forms of activities that require competition between two or more people. Sports transcended the purview of the early Greek Philosophers who focused only on having a sound mind in a sound body. Highlighting the importance of sports, Adesanya (1992a) opined that it is not just a viable relations tool but also a multimillion dollars spinning machine. Sports have also been found as an instrument of patriotism. Individuals in a multi-national country like Nigeria could be easily integrated using sports as the cohesive agent (Awosika, 2000a). The importance of sports to a nation cannot be ignored among the youths that serve as prime movers in diverse national issues.
Sport is one of the most important social concepts in the world today and many countries and organizations use sports as a tool for popularity. Sports as we know it today has its origin in the activities of the early man. Adedeji (2000), stated that sports development in Nigeria has gone through a lot of metamorphosis from the colonial period through independence to the present day. He further stated that sports is a concept that eludes a uniform definition but it is a universal languages that permeates every aspect of human life, be it politics, religion, economy, culture and literature.
The vision 2010 gave official backing to sports as a requirement in all institutions of learning. The sports policy states that at least one lecture free afternoon for sporting activities be set between Monday and Friday and that participation in sports shall be compulsory in higher institutions of learning in the first two years of study. Sports development, according to the policy document is the process of continuous improvement of the sports structure, institution and programmes in order to create a societal condition conducive to physical fitness for all participants and the effective functioning for self actualization.
The success of any sporting programme depends largely on the quantity and quality of available facilities. In institutions of higher learning participation in both indoor and outdoor sporting activities becomes a thing of joy for athletes. Onifade (2000), stated that any sports programme without sufficient facilities and supplies would not produce excellent results no matter the level of preparation.
Physical education and sports programmes are becoming complex both on their scope and management functions. Despite the demands of its complexities, teachers, coaches and sports administrators often take their planning and executive functions, for granted, thereby exposing themselves and the athletes to avoidable injuries. Since there is an official basis for the existence of sports, there is also bound to be an official basis for its management actions and results.
Competitive sports in Nigeria dates back to the pre-independence period when people competed against each other in village squares. Modern sports however, formalized competitive sports at institutional, national, international and professional levels vision 2010 and the sports development policy remain the most comprehensive documents regarding sports development in Nigeria (Amuchie, 1998). Competition is one of the greatest of all tools for sports development. Emiola (2000), stated that in order to increase the number of competitions with the hope of improving the standards and popularity of sports, several international sports bodies have introduced one form of championship or the other to their programmes.
Sports competition should be encouraged for sports development at the college, inter school, inter departmental and inter club levels. Some colleges rather than have a sports calendar often wait until the biennial Nigeria Colleges of Education Games (NICEGA) are around before organizing competition for talent hunt, thereby neglecting the intramural aspect of sports participation. Morakinyo (2000) opined that to enhance sports development in our educational system, there should be a sound sports programme that will include intramural, extramural and interscholastic sports competitions.
Fiscal management implies financial proposals, planning and accounting. Sports programmes no mater how laudable they may be on paper need funds to translate them into reality. The provision of such needed funds therefore becomes important in the management and development of sports.
Igbanugo (1986) expressed the importance of funding in sports when she stated that unless adequate funds were provided, Nigeria's dream that our athletes would one day take their rightful place in the world of sports would remain a dream and nothing more. The judicious use of allocated funds are embezzled or misappropriated for the development of sports. When funds are embezzled or misappropriated the noble intention of the funding authority become varied. In other words, prudent financial and administrative management is a major-key of sports development in Colleges of Education.
The federal government through the Visian 2010 gave official backing to sports as a requirement in all institution of learning. Realizing the enormity of the responsibilities of developing institutional sports the Sports Development Policy states that the funding, provision of facilities and organization of sports in all educational institutions shall be the responsibility of the Ministry of Sports at the Federal, State and Local Government in close collaboration with the Federal and States Ministries of Education. However, research studies have shown that sports programmes have subsequently suffered as a result of gross inattention to developmental requirements as expected by the policy. Studies of Mgbo (1994), Onifade (2005) attested to the inadequacy of facilities in colleges of education. Obiyemi (2002), stated that equipment and supplies are grossly inadequate. Availability of qualified personnel remains a major factor in sports development, which has been neglected by policy makers in the various colleges according to Ajiduah ( 2001). He revealed that most colleges have no coach and that often times college sports is managed by non-specialist.

Methodology
The descriptive survey research design was used for this study. The population for the study consisted of all members of theiports committee/councils, Coaches and all the athletes of Colleges of Education in Oyo, Ogun and Lagos States. The sample for the study was drawn from the sports personnel, male and female athletes of the six Colleges of Education in Oyo. Ogun and Lagos States. Multy-stage sampling technique was utilized for the study, purposive sampling technique was used in selecting sixty five members of the sports committee and thirteen (13) coaches from all the colleges stratified and random sampling was then used in selecting six hundred (600) male and female student athletes from all the colleges. The sample was stratified according to the various sports that take place in the colleges. A total of one thousand, two hundred and thirty four (1,234) respondents constituted the sample for the study. Three null hypotheses were formulated for the study. A self designed questionnaire made up of four point rating scale of Strongly Agree (SA), Agree (A), Disagree (D), Strongly Disagree (SD) was used for data collection. This instrument was pre-tested for validation and correctness. The reliability coefficient of the instrument was 0.76. The questionnaire forms were distributed to the respondents with the assistance of research assistant. All items were retrieved and well completed. The inferential statistic of multiple regression was utilized in analyzing the hypotheses at level of significance.



Results
Table 1: Relative predictive effect of facility and equipment on sports development in Oyo, Ogun and Lagos State Colleges of Education

B
SEB BETA T SIG REMARKS
515
.056 .175 9.114 .000 SIG*



Hypothesis-Reject-Significant

Table 1 shows the regression analysis of the predictive effect of facility and equipment operation on sports development in the College of Education * Facility and Equipment reveals a predictive value of (B = .515, Beta = .056, T = 9.114, P > ..05) which was significant. The result indicates that facility and equipment operation, as a sport delivery system is a significant predictor of sports development in Colleges of education in Oyo, Ogun and Lagos State. Therefore, hypothesis 1 was rejected.



Table 2: Relative predictive effect of personnel on sports development in college of education in Oyo, Ogun and Lagos States.

B
St. B BETA T SIG REMARKS
.413
.071 .102 5.794 .000 SIG*


Hypothesis-rejected-significant
Table 2 shows the regression analysis of the predictive effect on availability of qualified sports personnel on sports development in the Colleges of Education. A predictive value of B = .413, beta = .102, t = 3.794; P < .05} was obtained. It is evident that availability of qualified personnel is a significant predictor of sports development in Colleges of Education in Oyo, Ogun and Lagos States. Therefore, hypothesis 2 is rejected.
SIG



Table 3: Relative predictive effect of fiscal management on sports development in Colleges of Education.

B
SE.B BETA T SIG REMARKS

.646
.052 .237 12.468 .000 SIG*


Hypothesis-rejected significant
Table 3 shows the regression analysis of the predictive effect of the fiscal management on sports development in the Colleges of Education in Oyo, Ogun and Lagos States. A significant
predictive value of (B = .237, t = 12.468, P < .05} was obtained.
In effect this indicates that fiscal management, as a sports delivery system is a predictor of sports development in Colleges of Education in Oyo, Ogun and Lagos State. In the light of this hypothesis 3 is rejected.

DISCUSSION
The finding in table 1 showed that facility and equipment operation was a significant predictor of sport development in College of Education under study. The function of sports facilities and equipment in the development of sports according to Ituh (1992), cannot be overemphasized. He asserted that lack of it will handicap both upcoming and most proficient athletes. Onifade (2000), asserted that easy accessibility to sports facilities and equipment is an extremely important consideration in order to encourage participant. The finding in table 2 showed that availability of qualified personnel as sports delivery system was a significant predictor of sports development in colleges of education. The delivery of sports services revolves around the activities of certain personnel in the sports enterprise. These personnel according to Aniuchie (1998), are officials who are in charge of handling facilities, equipment, staff supervision, general administration and organizational set up of coaches or trainers. Ajiduah (2001), stated that most often sports management posts are occupied by government loyalists or people who are not professionals but maneuver themselves into the center stage of sports administration. The finding in table 3 showed that fiscal management as a sports delivery system was a significant predictor of sports development in the colleges of education under study. Funds basically are the vehicle with which sports can be developed in this country especially in the Colleges of Education. Ekanem (1995), attested to this view when he stated that sports programmes have always been made to suffer as a result of lack of funds. Nwankwo (2001), stated that fiscal management involves sourcing, allocation and utilization of funds for sports development.

Conclusion
Based on the findings in this study, virtually all the colleges of education facilities and equipment were grossly inadequate and sub-standard. Personnel are not educationally qualified to handle sports programmes, funding of sports programmes are not in the management of all these colleges listed.

Recommendations
1. Adequate facilities and equipment should be provided
for the various colleges. A well-scheduled calendar of
operation must be established to ensure maintenance
of the facilities and equipment so provided.
2. Technical personnel (coaches) should be recruited tohandle the various games in the colleges and should be sent for refresher courses from time to time. Specialist in Physical Education should head the chairmanship positions of the Sports Council/ Committees.
3. Proposals for sponsorships that range from financial grants, media coverage, funding and infact sponsorship should be presented to individual philanthropists and corporate organization for sponsorship deals. This will cushion the effect of inadequate funding of colleges sports programmes.


References

Adedeji, J.A. (2000). Sports in Nigeria: Past, Present and Future 21st century and Sports Development in Nigeria. Abuja. Federal ministry of Sports and Social Development. 5-15.
Adesanya, O.A. (1992a). Some basic consideration for Nigeria Universities in the provision and management of sport facilities. Journal of Nigeria Academy of sports Administration. 1 (1&2) 19-25.
Ajiduah, A.O. (2001). Revitalizing sports in Nigeria: Practices, Problems and prospects. In Report of the National Committee on problems of Sports Development in Nigeria, 3 part of A 47-51.
Amuchie, F.A. (1998). Understanding the foundation of vision 2010 sports programmes. Journal of Nigeria Association for physical Health education Recreation Sports and Dance (NAPHER-SD) pgs. 26-29.
Awosika, Y. (200a). National Sports Festivals. 21st Century and Sports Development in Nigeria. Abuja: Federal Ministry of Sports and Social Development, 53-61.
Ekanem, M.U. (1995). Towards improving Nigeria performance in international sports competitions. Journals of the National Institute for Sports, (11. 12-16).
Emiola, M.L. (2000). Hosting of Sports championship. 21st Century and Sports Development in Nigeria. Abuja: Federal Ministry of Sports and Social Development. Pgs. 82-90.
Igbanugo, V. (1986). Effective organization of sports: Relationship to performance. In C.O. Udoh, A.S. Sohi 8s J.A. Ayala (eds). Organization of Sports, in Nigeria Universities, Ibadan: Claveranua.
Ituh, M.C. (1992). Provision or improvisation of sports equipment/facilities during a distressed economy. Journal of Nigeria Academy of Sports Administration 1(2) 20-24.
Mgbor, M.O. (1994). Constraints in the development of sports in Nigeria Universities. OSUAJOE Journal of Educations 1(1), 86-98.
Morakinyo, E.G. (2000). Sports Management Structure. (21st Century and sport development in Nigeria Abuja: Federal Ministry of Sports and Social Development. Pgs. 151-163.
Nwankwo, E.I. (2001). The place of media, facilities and equipment in sports development. In Report of the National Committee on problems of sports development in Nigeria, vol. Ill part A, 461-473.
Obiyemi, W. (2000). Mobility Communities as a strategy for enhancing sports development at local Government Level. Manual on Strategies for Enhancing Sports Development at the Local Government Level. Ibadan. Federal Ministry of Sports and Social Development 7-19.
Onifade, E.A. (2000). Role of government in creating sports awareness. 21st Century and Sports Development in Nigeria. Abuja. (Federal Ministry of Sports and Social Development) pgs 128-137.
Federal Republic of Nigeria June (1997). Vision 2010 on sports.


NEWLY MARRIED COUPLES: TIPS FOR MARITAL STABILITY AND COUNSELING.

BY

REV. FR. DR. DAM1AN C. ANUKA
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FOUNDATION
NWAFOR ORIZU COLLEGE OF EDUCATION NSUGBE
ANAMBRA STATE, NIGERIA.


Abstract.
In this paper an attempt was made to highlight some of the critical areas that contribute to marital stability and happiness of marriage and family life, especially those just beginning life together as married couples, ft is not unusual that the newly wedded couples are faced with great challenges of marital life such as, marital roles, marital expectations, marital communications etc. These and other challenges are the issues discussed here, in order to assist them find their feet in their new wedlock; in a woFIH' where marital instability, divorce, desertion, wife battering, and abandonment is the order of the day.



In today's world, the rate of marital instability, broken homes, and family upheavals among the new generation of families is daily on the increase. Millions of young families have broken down, and many more unstable. In the words of Bier (1968), divorce is one of the most serious and complex mental health crises facing the children of today, and ihc number is alarming. Making the same observation, Midgley (1990), indicates that divorce rate among the newly wedded couples especially those married under five years is both shocking and staggering, and calls for some urgent attention to stem the trend. In Nigeria, the situation is not different. The focus of this paper therefore is for the newly wedded Nigerians who are having difficulties in their new families. It is aimed at highlighting some of the critical areas that can help them to find their feet in their new roles of husband and wife. These areas include:
a. Marital Expectations,
b. Marital Commitment,
c. Marital Communications,
d. Marital Roles, and
e. Marital Sexuality.
I shall now take these areas one by one starting first with.

Marital Expectations
Both experience and research have shown that every man and woman has a dream of an ideal man or woman he/she would like to have as a husband or wife. And it is known that in reality, that such a husband or wife is nonexistent. It is also known that one of the early problems of the newly married is the disappointment of not finding in each other their dreamed expectations. This is because research studies have sown that in new marriage relationships, the pew husband has some ideas as to how he should behave as a husband (his role), and he also has some idea as to how his wife should behave in her role (his role expectations of his wife). On the other hand the wife also has some ideas as to how she should behave as a wife (her role), and has certain expectations of her husband's role. Where these expectations are not measured up by any or both parties conflicts usually arise, and the initial enthusiasm and love with which they embraced each other begins to wane and dissipate.
It has also been observed that each partner usually has not only expectations of what should be done by the other but also about how the particular function should be carried out. For instance the wife may not only expect her husband to participate fully in the household chores, but that he should do so in a loving and pleasant manner. If the husband accepts to participate fully in the household chores but does it grudgingly the wife's expectations may be violated and this will result to conflict.
Furthermore Magnus (1957), observes that in marriage each partner has not only expectations of what and how the other person should behave in his/her role, but also how the other person should be as a person. When one's self perception does not agree with the perception of the marriage partner, conflict is likely to arise. For instance the husband may see himself as efficient, helpful, loving and friendly, while his wife sees him as stingy, suspicious, domineering and unfriendly. Midgley (1990), advises that when the expectations of the newly married does not measure up, they should not give up on each other. They should rather get in touch with them, identify them, and learn how to deal with them together. The wife should without inhibitions let her husband know about her expectations, and the husband should do the same. When they successfully overcome this initial problem of their marriage, they will now be in a stronger position to deal with other family conflicts as they arise
Marital Commitment
"They are no longer two, but one body," so what God has joined together, let no man put asunder (Gen: 2:24). Anuka (1994), opines that one of the greatest problems confronting the newly married couples after wedlock, is the realization of this unity enjoined them by the scriptures. And the success or failure of their marriage depends on how they are able to achieve this oneness of mind and body. This is not an easy task, for it is a whole life long process that requires great resolve and determination. It is through it that they can resolve to be committed to each other to the tenets of their marital covenant 'for better or for worse'. This commitment implies empathic understanding of each other, which refers to the ability of the spouses to see where it pinches the other. Empathy enables them to see things from a common point of view, each making effort to see things not only from his/her own view point, but also from the point of view of-the other. When relationship between partners is built to such a degree that each becomes very sensitive to the feelings of the other, it is a sure sign that their commitment to each other is growing stronger and better.
Honesty is another critical factor that enhances marital commitment. According to Martinson (1960), it is a sign that they newly wedded spouses are sincere, upright, arid truthful in dealing with each other. Me further emphasizes, that it is the ability of the newly married to mean "yes" when he/she says "yes", and mean "no" when he/she says "no". In a situation where one partner says one thing and does another, it adversely affects the spirit of commitment, because the basic factors for mutual and enduring marital relationships of honesty and sincerity are absent.
Forgiveness is another factor that strengthens the commitment of the newly married couples. This is the ability of the spouses lo know how to forgive and forget (he faults of the other, because 'to err is human, and to forgive is divine'. In a situation where one partner constantly bears grudges and nurses injuries against the other, such a relationship will not grow, and it impedes the spirit of commitment. Commitment therefore, should be the watchword of the new spouses in marriage. For it is one of the only few ways of actualizing their marriage covenant of 'for better or for worse'?
Marital Communication
Marital communication is the ability of the newly married couples to dialogue and discuss every issue in all aspects of marriage and family life. It is indeed one of the essential ingredients of marital stability, as Midgley (1990) observes that if a husband and wife cannot talk with each other and listen to each other, then there is little else that holds them together in marriage, and it is only a matter of lime before the disintegration of such a marriage. However, Joseph and LoisBird (1969), warn that spouses in marriage should understand that marital communication is not an easy exercise, because it is not a mere conversation. Many people converse with ease, but they seldom communicate. Marital communication is a complex issue, and a learned skill, and like all complex skills, it can be developed only through constant practice.
Research studies have shown that one of the greatest problem areas in marriage among the newly wedded spouses is inadequate communication. And the reason for this is that often they are either ignorant of what to discuss or they feel too shy lo discuss issues that bother them. But as persons that have completely surrendered themselves in marriage lo each other, they should never feel shy to discuss any issue that pertains to their marriage, which may include the following:
1. Family Income and Management: This is one of the sensitive and critical
areas of family life. Both spouses should know how much fund comes into
the house through either side, and how such fund is being expended.
2. Family Religion: In these days of multiple religions and multiple religious sects, they should decide and agree early in marriage, which religion and what sect they should adopt as their family religion, and they should strive
to abide by their decision.
3. Family Roles: They should agree very early in marriage what type of roles they should adopt as family roles, whether traditional or conventional type.
4. Family In-laws: They should agree on how to relate with their in-laws on both sides of the husband and wife, and what kind of support and help to render to them.
5. Family Friends: They should agree together on who and who shall be their family friends, and abide strictly by this decision, because sometimes friends become the cause of family problems.
6. Family Planning: They should early in marriage decide on how many
children they want to have, how many of both sexes, and spacing periods. They should also agree on the type of family planning methods they want to adopt, which will not be contrary to their faith, and which will not be harmful to either of the spouses.
These and other issues not mentioned are some of the critical matters, which the newly married spouses should be able to discuss and dialogue in strengthening their loving relationship as husband and wife.
Marital Roles
Marital role is another delicate area of family life for the newly wedded spouses in deciding who does what. This is perhaps before a man decides to marry lie has already in his mind the type of person and the kind of roles he would like his wife to be and play in his home. It is the same thing with the woman, before marriage, she has formed in her mind the type of man she would like to marry, and kind of roles, he should play in the home. Often conflict arises when one's self perception does not agree with the perception of the married partner.
In traditional Nigerian communities, a woman was required to beget and rear children, see that they were properly dressed and fed. make sure that the house was neat and clean, and assist the husband in farm work. The man on other hand was expected to beget children and provide for them and his wife. He was also expected to provide shelter, clothing, and education to his children, and also contribute to the social life of the community in which he lives.
In modem society however, a lot of changes are taking place including the traditional roles of man and woman in the home. The modern women all over the world are kicking against the traditional roles, which suggests that 'the woman's place is in the kitchen'. They instead advocate for a new role, which they called 'shared responsibility role'. By this, they mean that both the husband and wife should have equal responsibility in the home, and that any of them can play any role depending on who is more available and better equipped to handle any particular role that comes at hand, be it talcing care of the children, cooking food, doing laundry, cleaning the house etc. As a result of these developments, Landis and Landis (1973), advise die new couples to try and harmonize their feelings about roles. They further advise that a couple who is co-operative and who can give one another recognition and respect for ability or achievement in whatever areas of family life, have a better chance of happiness in marriage, regardless of how they work out the division of labor and authority in their home. For mutually supportive attitudes is part of essential ingredients to a good relationship.
Marital Sex
One other area of marriage that threatens the stability of the newly wedded spouses is the issue of sex. In most traditional communities of the world including Nigeria, sex was a taboo that was rarely discussed in the open. Even between the most loving married couples, the feelings of sex and its expression are often suppressed and approached with some sense of shame and humiliation. This is particular among women, who even when emotional in need of her husband sexually finds it difficult to express her feelings freely. However, in modern times all these taboos are crumbling and dying fast, for today sex Is being seen as something natural and good, and therefore more widely talked about in the open. It is being acknowledged as a gift from God, so that the husband and wife may not only share their feelings, thoughts, dreams and fears, but may also share their bodies together. In doing this, they should understand that as a gift from God that sex has an intended purpose, because God could not have created it without providing proper means of it's proper use. They should also understand that sex in-marriage is not a mere sexual satisfaction of the passion, but one of the most powerful instruments of saying, "I love you with my whole heart, with my whole soul, and with my whole mind". It is a means of a total surrender of one's self to the other.
Sex in marriage is also a mode of communication. It is indeed the deepest means of communication between 'husband and wife. For if they are happy in their sex life, it will also affect every other aspect of their relationship such as, their marital roles, marital finance and management, marital communications, their in-law relationships etc. On the other hand, couples that are not happy in their sex life will rarely be happy in these other areas of marital relationship. Finally and most importantly, sex in marriage is a service to new life. This is a universal common knowledge that cuts across cultures and civilizations. The author of marriage declared this intention unequivocally in the book of Genesis when he ordered the first man and woman "to increase and multiply". What all these implies is that sexuality as an activity is intended for those who have given themselves to each other in marriage, and for the purpose of human generation. In marital sex therefore, there must be a reverential disposition and will to render service to life. Every married couple therefore, especially those who have just wedded should towards this goal in order to further enhance their marital stability and happiness.

RECOMMENDATIONS

1. From the foregoing, the paper recommends that the newly married who are just beginning life as husband and wife, should not take things for granted. They
should be aware of these sensitive areas of marital life, and the great challenge they pose to them in their quest for a stable marital union.
2. Experience have shown that every man has a dream wife, and the kind of role she should play in his home. Also every woman has a dream husband and the type of
person he should be. But most often these dreams are mere illusion. When this is the case between the newly married, they should not be troubled or be threatened
in their union. They should rather be honest to each other by disclosing their expectations to each other and discuss how best to narrow the gaps between their
expectations and noncompliance.
3. Marital communication has been described as one of the essential ingredients of a stable marital union. When a husband and wife are unable to talk and listen to
each other, then there is no basis for their union, it is only a matter of time before they break asunder. The paper therefore strongly recommends that any married couple that desires to be happy and strong in their relationship should endeavor to dialogue and discuss all issues pertaining is their marriage freely and without inhibitions.
4. Recent research findings indicate that millions of young families are
disintegrating world wide including Nigeria. The saying that 'experience is the best teacher' does not apply to a wise person because he learns from other people's experiences. The newly married should therefore open their eyes and hearts to learn from the mistakes of their neighbors and friends whose marriage have crumbled, to avoid being victims themselves.
5. A newly married couple that are having crisis in their relationship, should not give up in their union no matter the nature of the crisis. They should first of all seek for
counseling intervention from reputable marriage counselors that now abound in the society. They can also attend marriage encounter seminars, marriage week¬
end-programs etc, being organized by some religious bodies and non-government organizations. Also as we are in a technological age, they can make use of the
internet services by downloading information that are relevant to their cause.

CONCLUSION
In this paper an attempt has been made to highlight some of the critical areas of marriage that enhances the marital stability and happiness of married couples especially those just Beginning a new. In doing this, such areas like marital expectations, marital roles, marital communication etc were highlighted. Some recommendations were also made.


References
Anuka, D.C. (1994), In Search of My Other Self: A Guideline for a Successful Marital Choice Onitsha: Fidelity Educational Books Pub. Ltd.

Anuka, D.C. (2002), A handbook For Marriage Education And Family Counseling. Onitsha: Fidelity Educational Book, Publishers Ltd.

Joseph, B.& Lois, B. (1969), Marriage for Grownups. New York: Image Books. A division of Doubleday & Co.
Landis, T.J.& Landis, J,M. (1973), Building A Successful Marriage. New Jersey: Prince Hall, Inc.

Magnus, A.R. (1957J, "Family Impact on Mental Health". Journal of Marriage and family Living. August, pp.256-262.

Martinson, T. M. (1960), Marriage and the American Ideal. New York: Dodd, Mead, & Co.

Midgley, J.S. (1990), Partners on the Journey: A Support Structure for the Newly Married. New York/Mahaw, N.J; Paulist Press.



















EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGIES AVAILABLE AND CHALLENGES IN THEIR OPTIMAL UTILISATION IN PROMOTING CHILDREN’S’ LITERACY INSTRUCTION

BY

DR OBIDIKE NGOZI DIWUNMA
EARLY CHILDHOOD & PRIMARY EDUCATION
FACULTY OF EDUCATION
NNAMDI AZIKIWE UNIVERSITY, AWKA

&

DR ONWUKA LILIAN NWANNEKA
EARLY CHILDHOOD & PRIMARY EDUCATION
FACULTY OF EDUCATION
NNAMDI AZIKIWE UNIVERSITY, AWKA

&

DR. ANYIKWA NGOZI EUCHARIA
EARLY CHILDHOOD & PRIMARY EDUCATION
FACULTY OF EDUCATION
NNAMDI AZIKIWE UNIVERSITY, AWKA


Abstract
Educational technology is nudging literacy instruction beyond its oral and print-based traditions to embrace online and electronic texts. Computers and internet are creating new opportunities for writing and collaboration on a global level for children to communicate, stressing the need for rock-solid reading and writing skills. By changing the way that information is absorbed, processed, and used, technology is influencing not only how children read, write, listen, and communicate, but also how teachers can promote literacy instruction. Although technology promotes literacy in new ways, there are challenges inherent in it that are necessary for the teachers of young children to know in order to help them be better informed in teaching literacy skills to children. This paper therefore, tries to identify the educational technologies available as well as the challenges in their optimal utilization in promoting children’s’ literacy instruction. Recommendations were made.



Educational technology, which is the incorporation of information technology into the learning experience, has continued to evolve alongside technological advancements in the field of science.
It has played a major part in improving the learning outcomes of students and individuals by personalizing the learning experience. The immediate responsiveness of computer based programmes, and the self-paced private learning environment that educational technology makes possible, seeks to promote higher levels of motivation among students worldwide. It has also provided greater access to education such as in the case of increased accommodation for students with severe physical disabilities and for students living in remote areas.
In childhood education, technology can bring different learning opportunities to children literacy instruction. For example in computer programmes for writers, a variety of world processing programmes, desktop publishing programmes and graphics packages, support children who use the process approach to writing. Children revise and edit their rough draft more easily when they use word processors, and they print out neat and clean copies without the drudgery of recopying their compositions (Oweston,1997). According to him, they use digital cameras, graphics packages, and painting programmes to create illustrations. And with desktop publishing programmes, children create professional- looking newspapers, brochures, and books. This is similar to Mayesky’s (2006) observation that computers, along with developmentally appropriate software, inexpensive cameras, digital cameras, videos, age-appropriate video games, interactive CDs, digital videodiscs, (DVDs), and cassette tape recorders, can make a unique contribution to the education of young children. Computers empower young children, and enable them to become totally immersed in the joys of learning. But the computer experiences, have to be developmentally appropriate.
Although many reviews of empirical studies and volumes of observations relate to the use of new technologies in support of literacy education ( Kamil, Intrator, & Kim, 2000; Leu, 2000), challenges however arises when educators look for evidence that might anchor recommendations for using technologies in literacy instruction. Identifying these challenges will go a long way in helping and informing the teachers of young children of these pitfalls in the application of educational technologies in children literacy instruction.
This paper therefore examines the resources that support integration of new technologies into children’s literacy instruction and the problems and challenges that may be encountered in promoting these resources for enriching children’s reading and writing skills. The following sub-heading will guide the discussion- technologies that support children’s reading development, technologies that support children’s writing skills, and the implementation challenges inherent in using the technologies to enrich children’s reading and writing skills.
Technologies that Support Children’s Reading Development Educational technologies that support the development of children’s reading
skills include audiobooks, electronic books and online texts, electronic talking books, and programmed reading instructions.
Audiobooks. Audiobooks, sometimes known as books on tape, are professionally recorded, unabridged versions of fiction or nonfiction books. They are available on regular audiocassettes or four-track cassettes that require a special cassette player. Audiobooks promote students' interest in reading and improve their comprehension of text (Beers 1998). They also have been used successfully by students who cannot read traditional printed books because of visual or physical handicaps.
When used in conjunction with written texts, audiobooks help improve children's reading skills. Children can listen to the audio version of a book and follow along silently with the printed version. Also, they can gain practice in reading aloud the text in conjunction with the audio. Hearing text read aloud improves reading ability (Beers, 1998). The use of audiobooks with struggling, reluctant, or second-language learners is powerful since they act as a scaffold that allows the children to read above their actual reading level. This is critical with older children who may still read at beginner’s level.
Electronic Books and Online Texts. Electronic books, also known as e-books, are electronic texts that are presented visually. Whether available on CD-ROM, the Internet, or special disks, electronic books always provide the text in a visual component. Some electronic books incorporate text enhancements, such as definitions of words or background information on ideas. Others offer illustrations that complement the story. The downside of electronic books is that they can be viewed only with a computer or a special palm-sized digital reader and often the text resolution is poor. In terms of their advantages, Anderson-Inman and Horney (1999) note that electronic books are searchable, modifiable (i.e font sizes can be increased to meet the needs of the reader), and enhanceable with embedded resources ( e.g, definitions and details).
Online texts are those that are available on the World Wide Web. With access to an Internet-connected computer, children can find a wide variety of free online reading materials, including books, plays, short stories, magazines, and reference materials. This benefit is especially useful for children in schools that have few resources for the acquisition of new books.
Electronic books and online texts often are equipped with hypermedia—links to text, data, graphics, audio, or video. As children read the text, they are able to click on the links to access definitions of words, additional information on concepts, illustrations, animations, and video—all of which can increase their understanding of the material. Research indicates that hypermedia software has positive effects on student learning and comprehension ( Anderson-Inman & Horney, 1998).
The use of hypermedia to improve a student’s comprehension of text is likely related to its ability to respond to the needs of an individual learner for information, which results in an increased sense of control over the learning environment and higher levels of intrinsic motivation (Anderson-Inman & Horney, 1998). That is, the interactive features of hypermedia and the users' control of their direction within these information environments may explain some of the learning benefits in comprehension ( Leu, 2000).
Electronic Talking Books. The term electronic talking books has been coined by some researchers to refer to electronic texts that also provide embedded speech. The speech component offers a digitized reading of general sections as well as pronunciations of specific words within the text; it supports and coaches students as they read the text of the story (Leu, 2000). Although research is ongoing about the effectiveness of electronic talking books, there is already much to be said in their favor (Leu, 2000; McKenna, 1998). Computers, especially those equipped with devices that produce artificial speech, may provide an effective means for increasing decoding skills and reading fluency as noted by Reinking and Watkins (1996).
Futhermore, McKenna (1998) observed that electronic talking books increase motivation to read as well as promote basic word recognition. According to some research, the use of talking books has shown positive results as an aid to help children improve their comprehension of texts (Hastings, 1997). In addition, children's decoding skills have been shown to improve with the use of talking books (Miller, Blackstock, & Miller, 1994). For slightly older readers, talking books feature glossary entries, explanatory notes, and simplified rewordings that provide additional background information needed to understand new concepts in texts (Anderson-Inman & Horney, 1998).
In general, electronic talking books have been found to support reading instruction by providing background information, extended response actions, play actions, and explanatory notes. Talking books also show promise of accelerating reading growth by offering readers immediate access to a word's pronunciation—thus easing the need of the children to rely on context cues to understand new words (Leu, 2000). They also can be equipped with a tracking system for troublesome pronunciations; this system can provide feedback to teachers, enabling them to identify particular categories of words for further student study.
Programmed Reading Instruction. Various types of software programs, computer-assisted instruction, and integrated learning systems offer programmed reading instruction for students. This skills-based instruction ranges from letter recognition, through phonics instruction to vocabulary building. A study by Barker and Torgeson (1995) also indicated that computer-assisted instruction is valuable in improving the phonological awareness of 6-year-olds. The computer program helped the children to learn to discriminate and sequence the sounds in diffrent words, which improved their word-reading ability.
Although programmed reading instruction was one of the first uses of technology in literacy instruction, this area is generating new developments as technology becomes more sophisticated. Recent developments in software programs for literacy instruction include voice-activated reading software and software for culturally mediated instruction. Project LISTEN is an example of research-in-progress on a computerized reading tutor; this software application "listens" as children read and "coaches" (talks) when the reader makes mistakes, gets stuck, clicks for help, or is likely to encounter difficulty.

Technologies that Support children’s Writing Development
Educational technologies that support the development of students' writing skills include word processing, desktop publishing, multimedia composing, online publishing, and Internet communication.
Word Processing. Word processing is the pioneer application of educational technology used in writing instruction. Although it requires the mastery of basic keyboarding skills, word processing allows many students to write and edit their work more easily. In addition, word-processing tools such as spelling checkers are useful aids that improve the quality of student writing. Research indicates that students who are comfortable with word processing write longer papers, spend more time writing and revising, and show improved mechanics and word choice (Lehr, 1995). Nevertheless, research also indicates that using a word processor does not by itself improve student writing. Rather, the teacher has a critical role in guiding the writing process, providing feedback, and encouraging revision (Reinking & Bridwell-Bowles, 1996).
The arguments for promoting word processing in childhood education are several. First, some educators acknowledge that because of the prevalence of word processing in the workplace, students should be taught at least the rudiments of word processing, much the same way that students have learned typing skills and their related content-based counterparts such as organizing a term paper, composing a letter, or drafting documents for research in various subject areas. Today's comparison might extend that argument to include acquiring such skills to produce traditional documents as well as hypertext and interactive documents.
The general claim behind the need to shift from typing or pen-and-paper compositions to word processing is that the latter is more efficient, and therefore the offloading of the mechanics of writing by word processing will improve the quality of writing. Researchers have investigated these claims. A meta-analysis of 32 studies comparing two groups of students who received identical writing instruction—with one group using word processing for writing assignments and the other group writing by hand—found that the quality of writing was higher for students using word processing (Bangert-Drowns, 1993). These studies—which included various grade levels, from college and high school down to elementary—indicated that the greatest successes with word processing were at the higher grade levels. A more recent research indicates that younger students also benefited from word-processing skills; in a study that compared the children's writing in a high-computer-access setting to a setting with infrequent computer usage, conducted during a three-year period beginning with third graders, frequent use of word processing was shown to contributed to improved writing skills (Owston & Wideman, 1997). Another study of second-grade students also indicated that word processing improved children's general writing skills and contributed to longer compositions (Jones, 1994).
On the other hand some, other researchers have tempered this finding by showing that without additional and appropriate structures for refining the quality of the writing; students' work does not automatically improve with word processing alone. For example, one researcher suggested that revisions of written work do not automatically result from the shift from pen-and-paper to word processing unless prompts for revision are explicitly added (Daiute, 1986). On the basis of this research, researchers strongly recommend that teachers actively adapt word-processing programs to instruction, thereby making an effective tool for learning.
The use of the computer for word processing also promotes collaborative writing among students. The computer screen enables students in small groups to see the writing that has been input, discuss its fine points, and make suggestions that will improve the quality. Wood (2000) noted that when using computers collaboratively children worked together more than they normally would to write stories, search the Web, or create multimedia presentations.
Desktop Publishing of Student Work. An extension of word processing is desktop publishing, in which children learn to format text, plan the layout of pages, insert charts and graphics, and produce a professional-looking final copy. As students are mastering word-processing skills, they can gain practice in desktop-publishing their reports, stories, and poems. Teachers also may require students to keep an electronic portfolio of their work, which can be printed at the end of the year and used to show improvements in each student's writing skills. Some classrooms enjoy writing and producing a class newspaper.
Multimedia Composing. Besides text-based writing, technology allows children to integrate visual and aural multimedia in their school projects. Various software programs allow students to insert images, sounds, and video, thereby creating complex, multilayered compositions. For students who have difficulty with writing, multimedia composing presents a means of self-expression and provides support for development of reading and writing skills.
Online Publishing of Student Work. Providing opportunities for online publishing of students' work is another means to motivate student writing. According to Karchmer (2000), publishing online is a motivating factor when completing classroom assignments. He further noted that students feel their work could have far-reaching effects, which in turn encourages them to put more effort into it. One way to accomplish online publishing is through the school's Web site. In developed countries, classrooms often have their own Web pages, which can display student assignments and extracurricular writing. If a school does not have its own Web site, opportunities to develop and house a Web site can be found at The Collaboratory Project and Web66: A K-12 World Wide Web Project. These projects, sponsored by educational organizations and businesses, support the development of a school's Web site and offer to maintain the school's server. They are also are based on the premise that many literacy teachers need additional technology support to publish documents online.
Online publishing also can be accomplished through online magazines and educational organizations that post students' writing on the Web. Three examples are Midlink Magazine, The Young Writers Club, and International Kids' Space. The World of Reading posts book reviews that are submitted by children.
Internet-Based Communication. Another way to promote children’s writing is through electronic mail (e-mail), electronic bulletin boards, and e-mail lists. Such Internet-based communication can be with peers, adults, or professional experts from around the world. Students in classrooms across the country can become online penpals (sometimes called e-pals or keypals) or into online communication with adult experts who have agreed to answer students' e-mail questions.
Writing to an authentic reader has a positive effect on students' writing performance and motivation (Reinking & Bridwell-Bowles, 1996). This is in line with Meyer and Rose (2000) observation that simple exchanges of e-mail can get students writing and reading with the same intensity they bring to the most exciting video game, and that receiving feedback from across the globe conveys to young children the power of reading and writing and demonstrates their ultimate purpose—to communicate across time and space.
Challenges inherent in integrating Technology into Literacy Instruction. This is discussed under two sub-headings- general challenges and implementation challenges.

General Challenges and Problems
The two major challenges and problems discussed here are the Moving Target Problems and Scarcity of Comprehensive Literacy Studies.
The "Moving Target" Problem. Much of the evidence that the researchers have been able to generate with regard to educational technologies is about innovations that aptly are described as a "moving target" (Valdez et al., 1999). In other words, by the time researchers begin to describe empirical evidence connected with the effects a particular technology has on an educational practice, that technology in itself would already have started changing and in some cases even becoming obsolete. In addition, the evolving nature of educational technologies precludes any efforts to predict the success of, and establish guidelines for, its subsequent use in educational practices. As newer technologies of information and communication continually appear, they raise concerns about the generalizability of findings from earlier technologies. That is why Leu, (2000) stressed that it is important to be cautious about generalizing findings from traditional texts to different forms of hypermedia because each technology contains different contexts and resources for constructing meanings and requires somewhat different strategies for doing so.
Scarcity of Comprehensive Literacy Studies. Consequent upon the fact that technology changes faster than the establishment of guidelines for innovations relatively few thorough studies have evaluated the efficacy of new technologies for literacy education. For example, a review by Kamil and Lane (1998) examined literacy research during the years between 1990 and 1995. ( Kamil, Intrator, & Kim, 2000; Leu, 2000.) This review looked at four mainstream literary journals with the highest citation rates for literacy research: Reading Research Quarterly, Journal of Reading Behavior (since changed to Journal of Literacy Research), Written Communication, and Research in the Teaching of English. In the two reading journals, only 1 percent of the articles dealt with technology issues. In the two writing journals, only 5 percent of the articles dealt with technology issues. In summary, Kamil and Lane (1998) noted that research into the problems and processes of literacy and technology has advanced little beyond what it was 10 years ago.
Some researchers suggest that the challenges related to technology and literacy must become more integral to mainstream literacy research. Collins (1992), for example, suggests that research should shift from an emphasis on traditional summative evaluation (in which data is acquired at the end of an activity) to include more formative design approaches (which are informed by data acquired during the planning and development of the activity). In fact, the formative-design experiment approach—in which research questions focus on the resources needed to make a specific implementation succeed (Reinking & Watkins, 1996)—is likely to become a trend in future educational research. This is supported by Kamil and Lane (1998) comment that it is too late to ask questions such as whether we should allow students access to the Internet but rather, we should be conducting research that asks questions such as, 'What does it take to use Internet connections successfully in teaching literacy.?
Some educators (Kamil, Intrator, & Kim, 2000) believe that schools should provide children with exposure to current technologies used in the business world regardless of whether those technologies have been proven effective through research. This is in agreement with the observation of Leu (2000) that it may become unimportant to demonstrate the advantages of new technologies in educational contexts if it is already clear those technologies will define the literacies of our children’s futures.

Implementation Challenges and Problems
When using word-processing software, students sometimes get carried away by the features of the software and forget that their real task is to write. They may spend much of their time selecting fonts, adding graphics and icons, and choosing backgrounds. To help children focus on their writing, the teacher may wish to turn off some of the software's available features.
Children who are unmonitored in their technology use may not reap real benefits in literacy. They need continued challenges and connections with the teacher to ensure that they are attaining higher-order thinking skills. Healy (1998), for example, warned that the activities offered on software programs often require only shallow processing and do not contribute to children's real learning. She noted that the act of watching a screen and making selections from limited options is a pallid substitute for real mental activity. She added that teachers must make sure that computer use includes the important step of requiring children to 'elaborate' their knowledge—thinking aloud, questioning, communicating ideas, or creating some kind of original representation about what they are learning.
Students who are working in small groups on technology-based projects may focus on some tasks to the exclusion of others. Although cooperative learning with computers has many benefits, Healy (1999) encourages teachers to promote students' individual participation in the processes of reading, writing, and reasoning. She noted that with much hypermedia experience occurring as group work, those who choose not to read or write can often avoid these skills entirely by relying on the good readers and writers to do this part of the job. Teachers should monitor group processes to ensure that all children are participating in the reading and writing activities of each project.
In their zest to complete assignments, children unthinkingly may download, copy, and paste writing from the Internet directly into their school reports and projects. To prevent children from presenting someone else's materials as their own, schools need to develop firm policies on plagiarism and ensure that students, teachers, and parents are aware of these policies. Also, teachers can help students learn to summarize, rephrase, and acknowledge another person's ideas.
Overemphasis on electronic texts may reduce children's use and enjoyment of printed books. A study by Gavriel Salomon stressed the importance of introducing children to books instead of relying only on electronic media because according to her, children who learn in one medium (screen vs. page) will always be inclined to prefer the one in which they learned (cited in Healy, 1998, p. 234).
Electronic bulletin boards and e-mail correspondence create communication avenues for children, but those students require rules of the road. Unlike traditional communication avenues, such rules are works in progress. Teachers need to help children become aware of the rules of online etiquette and appropriate forms of expression. Other important considerations include the acceptability of a fictitious identity, the role of self-regulation in public online forums, and the application of freedom of speech to all Internet interactions. Such considerations add a dimension to online communication that is both a challenge and an opportunity.
With thousands of programs and titles from which to choose, educators and library-media staff may need direction in selecting literacy software for students. Information on how to evaluate learning software may be helpful to anyone involved in the selection process.

Recommendations
Provision should be made for teachers of young children to:
• Participate in ongoing professional development on literacy and technology. Keep abreast of current realities as well as innovations, either through personal involvement in professional organizations that foster the understanding of technology and literacy across the curriculum, or through connections with computer-support personnel throughout the district.
• Become aware of the National Educational Technology Standards (NETS) for teachers and take steps to meet these standards.
• Gain practice in evaluating online educational materials for use in instruction.

Conclusion
The potentials of technology in education are far-reaching and ever-changing and should not be abandoned because it has at times been misused. This paper examined the various technologies available for promoting children’s literacy instruction and also highlighted the challenges inherent in using these technologies to promote children’s literacy instruction.


References
Anderson-Inman, L., & Horney, M. A. (1998). Transforming text for at-risk readers. In D. Reinking, M. C. McKenna, L. D. Labbo, & R. D. Kieffer (Eds.), Handbook of literacy and technology: Transformations in a post-typographic world (pp. 15- 44). Mahwah, N.J., Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Anderson-Inman, L., & Horney, M. A. (1999). Electronic books: Reading and studying with supportive resources. Reading Online http://www.readingonline.org/electronic/ebook/index.html

Bangert-Drowns, R. (1993). The word processor as an instructional tool: A meta-analysis of word processing in writing instruction. Review of Educational Research, 63(1), 69-93.

Barker, T., & Torgenson, J. (1995). An evaluation of computer-assisted instruction in phonolocal awareness with below-average readers. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 13(1) 89-103.

Beers, K. (1998). Listen while you read: Struggling readers and audiobooks. School Library Journal, 44(4), 30-35.

Collins, A. (1992). Toward a design science of education. In E. Scanlon & T. O'Shea (Eds.), New Directions in Educational Technology (pp. 15-22). New York: Springer Verlag.

Daiute, C. (1986). Physical and cognitive factors in revising: Insights from studies with computers. Research in the Teaching of English, 20(2), 141-159.

Hastings, E. (1997). Effects of CD-ROM talking storybooks on word recognition and motivation in young students with reading disabilities: An exploratory study. Unpublished manuscript, Syracuse University.

Healy, J. M. (1998). Failure to connect: How computers affect our children's minds--for better and worse. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Healy, J. M. (1999). Failure to connect: How computers affect our children's minds--and what we can do about it. New York: Touchstone.

Jones, I. (1994). The effect of a word processor on the written composition of second-grade pupils. Computers in the schools, 11(2), 43-54.

Kamil, M. L., Intrator, S. M., & Kim, H.S. (2000). The effects of other technologies on literacy and literacy learning. In M. L. Kamil, P. B. Mosenthal, P. D. Pearson, & R. Barr (Eds.), Handbook of Reading Research: Vol. III (pp. 771-788). Mahwah, N J: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Kamil, M. L., & Lane, D. (1998). Researching the relationship between technology and literacy: An agenda for the 21st century. In D. Reinking, M. C. McKenna, L. D. Labbo, & R. D. Kieffer (Eds.), Handbook of literacy and technology: Transformations in a post-typographic world (pp. 323-341). Mahwah, N.J., Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Karchmer, R. A. (2000). Understanding teachers' perspectives of Internet use in the classroom: Implications for teacher education and staff development programs. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 16(1), 81-85.

Lehr, F. (1995). Revision in the writing process. ERIC Digest. http://www.eric.ed.gov/contentdelivery/servlet/ERICServlet?accno=ED379664

Leu, D. J. (2000). Literacy and technology: Deictic consequences for literacy education in an information age. In M. L. Kamil, P. B. Mosenthal, P. D. Pearson, & R. Barr (Eds.), Handbook of Reading Research: Vol. III (pp. 743-770). Mahwah, N J: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

McKenna, M. C. (1998). Electronic texts and the transformation of beginning reading. In D. Reinking, M. C. McKenna, L. D. Labbo, & R. D. Kieffer (Eds.), Handbook of literacy and technology: Transformations in a post-typographic world (pp. 45-60). Mahwah, N.J., Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Meyer, A., & Rose, D. H., (2000). Learning to read in the computer age. http://www.cast.org/udl/index.cfm?i=18

Miller, L., Blackstock, J., & Miller, R. (1994). An exploratory study into the use of CD- ROM storybooks. Computers in Education, 22( ), 187-204.

Owston, R. D. (1997). The world wide web: A technology to enhance teaching and learning? Educational Research, 26(2), 27-33.

Owston, R. D., & Wideman, H. H. (1997). Word processors and children's writing in a high-computer-access setting. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 30(2), 202-220. http://www.edu.yorku.ca/~rowston/written.html

Reinking, D., & Watkins, J. (1996). A formative experiment investigating the use of multimedia book reviews to increase elementary students' independent reading. Athens, GA: National Reading Research Center

Valdez, G., McNabb, M., Foertsch, M. Anderson, M., Hawkes, M., & Raack, L. (1999). Computer-based technology and learning: Evolving uses and expectations. Oak Brook, IL, North Central Regional Educational Laboratory.

Wood, J. M. (2000) Literacy: Charlotte's web meets the World Wide Web. In D. T. Gordon (Ed.), The digital classroom: How technology is changing the way we teach and learn (pp.117-126). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Letter







DIMENSIONS OF CAPACITY BUILDING IN BUSINESS TEACHER EDUCATION FOR QUALITY ASSURANCE AND NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

BY

DR. J.I. EZENWAFOR
LECTURER
VOCATIONAL EDUCATION DEPARTMENT
NNAMDI AZIKIWE UNIVERSITY, AWKA



Abstract
The paper focuses on dimensions that are very critical for an effective implementation of business teacher education programs in Nigerian institutions. It defines capacity building as adequately providing essential conditions and materials for a person or program to deliver its mandate. It goes on to highlight the objectives of business teacher education programs in Nigeria and the concept of standard relative to business teacher education to show that the minimum standards approved for the programs by different supervisory agencies in the country are not being observed. Finally, it discusses critical dimensions to address in capacity building for the programs which include recruitment of adequate number and quality of lecturers, professional growth of business teacher education lecturers, keeping the lecturers optimally motivated and adequately providing infrastructural facilities and equipment. Recommendations are made that all stake holders should cooperate and ensure that adequate enabling environment is provided for business teacher education programs in Nigeria for quality assurance and national development.


The quality of education in Nigeria has continued to fall over the years with its detrimental effects on Nigerian citizens and the nation (Anowor, 2002). To show how precarious the situation is, Egwu (2006) reported a survey of the best universities in Africa in which the university of Ibadan, the best in Nigeria, featured as the 60th and 7000th among the world’s best universities. Reports like this should arouse every Nigerian citizen especially members of the academia and not just the government. Despite the discussion of this national problem in academic conferences and foras, Ejiofor (2002) asserted that significant improvement was yet to come. Anowor (2002) and Egwu (2006) identified poor quality of teachers as a major contributory factor among others. Since the quality of workers generally and teachers in particular is determined by the standard of their training, teacher education, which is the bedrock of national development deserve special attention. Consequently, Nigerian government in the National Policy on Education (1998) rightly stated that teacher education would continue to be given a major emphasis in all its educational planning because no education can rise above the quality of its teachers. Ndinechi, (1987) observed that vocational (business) teacher education is an aspect of business education concerned with the professional education of individuals who have made a tentative decision to take up a career as teachers of business subjects at any level of the education system. In the same vein, Aremu (1987) stated that the success of any business education program, like all other education programs, is largely determined by the objectives of the program, provision of infrastructural facilities and funds, adequate instructional equipment and materials, a well-defined curriculum content in addition to well-trained, adequately qualified and well-motivated teachers.
The main concern of this paper is to highlight critical dimensions to be addressed in building capacity in business teacher education for quality assurance and national development. The paper has four parts: Part one defines the terms capacity building, quality assurance and national development; part two looks at the objectives of business teacher education programs in the country. Part three discusses quality assurance in business teacher education and part four deals with four critical dimensions that must be covered in capacity building for business teacher education, namely; increasing the number of lecturers, professional growth of business teacher education lecturers, enhancing business teacher education lecturers’ motivational level and improving supply of relevant equipment and facilities.


Conceptual framework
The term ‘capacity building’ is relatively new in the country and does not convey any clear meaning to most people. Okeke (2007) observed that it is used in a variety of contexts and with different connotations that are most often not explicit. To throw more light on the meaning, the United Nations Development Program (UNDP, 1981) in Okeke (2007) defined capacity building to encompass
o The creation of an enabling environment with appropriate policy and legal framework
o Institutional development including community participation
o Human resources dev elopement and strengthening of managerial systems
o A continuing process in which all stakeholders participate
Okeke (2007) finally summed up the UNDP’s definition of the term capacity building as giving an individual or group training to enable the individual or group perform entrepreneurial tasks, become more creative and begin to see opportunities where none appears to exist. Generally, standard connotes high quality. Okoroma (2002) defined standard as a level of excellence which represents the level with which others are compared. Sustainable development implies development in continuity which demands that all citizens of the nation be creative and gainfully employed so as to contribute productively in economic, political and other national affairs. One major problem in the country has been lack of sustainable development which Ukeje (1996) blamed on poor leadership. The erudite scholar painted a pathetic picture of development in the country by observing that Nigeria was an undeveloped country prior to independence in 1960, became a developing country after independence and an undeveloping country after the civil crisis of the late sixties and early seventies. Recognizing the major role of education in enhancing sustainable development, the United Nations, in Okeke (2007) declared the period 2005 to 2014 as the decade of education for sustainable development.
National development is tied to the quality of the nation’s workforce which is the product of it educational institutions especially at the tertiary level. Capacity building in business teacher education will have a positive impact on the quality of business teachers and in turn the quality of products of business education programs who occupy positions in the world of work as employees and employers. Sanusi (2002) had opined that capacity building is central to sustainable economic growth and national development because human capital is the greatest asset of any nation. Capacity building, therefore, is a worthwhile investment in human resources development.

Objectives of Business Teacher Education Programs in Nigeria
The need for training teachers of business education in Nigeria came in the wake of the 1981 National Policy on Education when business education was built into the secondary school curriculum. The government tackled the need by sponsoring several individuals to train as teachers of business subjects both locally and in foreign institutions through the Technical Teachers Training Program (TTTP). In Nigeria, business teacher education programs are offered in colleges of education and some polytechnics for the award of the Nigerian Certificate in Education (NCE) and universities for the award of degrees (Ndinechi, 1987). The programs are established to prepare competent business teachers capable of promoting and enriching business education programs at the secondary and post secondary levels of education. Tonne and Nanassy (1970) posited that teachers of business subjects are expected to have
o The skills and attitudes desirable for all educated persons
o Competency in business or some phase of it
o A knowledge of principles and methods of teaching and
o A general cultural education
Davis and Oladunjoye (1987) recommended that for business teachers to meet the approved standards, they should spend at least one half of their training on general education and the other half on the business subjects they intend to teach. The authors presented the objectives of the business teacher education program of the Ahmadu Belo University, Zaria which commenced in 1981 to include:
o Helping state governments develop and improve business program in secondary schools, polytechnics and advanced teachers colleges (now colleges of education)
o Organizing programs for the in-service education of business teachers
o Preparing and disseminating instructional materials in the various areas of business education
o Laying adequate business education background upon which the graduates can hinge post graduate studies
o Contributing to the improvement of curriculum, course content and teaching strategies of business education subjects at all levels through research and communication
Ndinechi (1987) observed that Emeruem (1985) and others have documented the education and training which a good business teacher should receive and went on to outline major objectives of business teacher education in Nigeria as follows:
o To prepare teachers of business subjects who can serve at the junior and senior secondary school levels
o To provide business teachers necessary preparations to teach the general vocational and pre-vocational aspects as well as the conceptual and theoretical aspects of business education
o To provide business teachers with the necessary competencies in professional education
o To provide the business teachers with thorough understanding of the principles and skills of business administration and other management sciences together with a broad comprehension of the basic disciplines of Maths and behavioural sciences
o To provide each business teacher with a general education that will help him relate more effectively to the environment in which he lives
o To provide business teachers the ability to understand, undertake and consult research
o To provide additional learning experiences for serving business teachers through in-service programs.
Finally, Ndinechi (1987) asserted that in order to achieve the aforementioned objectives, the business teacher education curriculum should be developed by individuals who, in addition to having a professional commitment are speculative and futuristic enough to see the long range implication of modern practices in management sciences, strategies for implementing change, emerging education policies, economic trends, societal influences, etc.

Standard in Business Teacher Education
The concept of standard in business teacher education, according to Amaewhule (2004), differs from one situation to another and from one institution to another. In the same vein, Akinola (1992) observed that standard is a relative term and varies according to circumstances. However, Amaewhule (2004) defined standard in education generally and, by implication, business teacher education in particular, as a level of quality that can be acceptable in order to earn a passing grade. He discussed standard in education under six headings, namely; the teacher, the student, facilities, assessment, management and professional development.
Highlighting the need for improving standard in business education, Okwuanaso (2004) observed that business education was introduced in Nigerian schools by the Federal Government in 1981with the hope that it will provide a crop of Nigerians with appropriate skills for employment, abilities and competencies that will enable them to play citizenship roles, become self-reliant and enrol for further training in the field. However, he reported several research findings especially Ezeji (1992) and Igwe (1992) which indicated that the nation’s expectations of the program are not being fully met. In an attempt to answer his own question “Why is business education unable to provide people with appropriate skills for employment, abilities and competencies to play citizenship roles, become self-reliant and pursue further training?”, Okwuanaso (2004:13) identified inadequate funding as a major factor arguing that without adequate funding, provisions of adequate infrastructural facilities and relevant equipment for the program will remain practically unattainable.
The different supervisory agencies for higher education in Nigeria have the responsibility of stipulating minimum standards for different programs including teacher education. For instance, the Minimum Standards for the National Certificate in Education (NCE) Vocational (business and technical) Education (NCCE, 2002), in addition to highlighting the objectives of the program, stipulated the general and specific admission requirements, facilities, equipment and supplies, personnel and mode of teaching. This document will serve as a guide in discussing the three dimensions of capacity building in business teacher education earlier outlined as follows:

Dimensions of Capacity Building for Business Teacher Education
1. Recruiting adequate number of lecturers
Business teacher education is a core skill field with options in secretarial education, accounting education and commerce/cooperative education. In recognition of this, the NCCE (2002) stipulated that there should be at least one lecturer per subject area and a minimum of nine lecturers for the program one of whom should be a computer specialist while all others must be computer literate. The document emphasized that computer literacy should be one of the criteria for fresh appointments of lecturers for the program. It further stipulated that the ratio of lecturer to student should be 1:20 (one lecturer to twenty students) for typewriting (now word processing) and accounting and 1:30 (one lecturer to thirty students) for other subjects such as Economics and Commerce.
The practice in colleges of education and other institutions in Nigeria offering business teacher education programs is a far cry from the above stipulations. For instance, the Business Education program of the Department of Vocational Education in Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka where first degree program in the three options of business education, post graduate diploma in education, masters degree and doctor of philosophy degree programs in business education are offered, there are only seven lecturers with a lecturer/student ratio of 1:150 or more (one lecturer to over one hundred and fifty students) in all the subject offerings. In this type of situation, lecturers work under extremely severe pressure with the resultant effect on standard. Consequently, a practical way of creating an enabling environment for this program to perform optimally will necessarily be to recruit many more lecturers in line with the prescriptions of the Minimum Standards on lecturer/student ratio.
2. Professional development of business teacher education lecturers
It is commonly said that a woman who started coming before another normally has more utensils. In this light, the need for new business teacher education lecturers to grow in the profession cannot be over-emphasized. No matter the initial qualification of new business teacher education lecturers, they need some mentoring by the more experienced ones so as to get them better equipped for quality performance. As posited by Sanusi (2002) this could be through any or a combination of
a) On-the-job training
b) Off-the-job training
c) Formal apprenticeship program combined with either or both of a and b above
d) Rotation on series of jobs either as job enlargement or enrichment program. For instance, courses could be rotated among lecturers in a given option in the program to widen their individual and general horizons. Although division of labour facilitates specialization in industry, a situation where a particular lecturer becomes synonymous with a particular course in any academic department is not helpful because, should the need arise, getting another lecturer to handle the course will tantamount to learning to be left-handed in old age.
3. Enhancing lecturers’ motivational level
The performance of workers generally and teachers/lecturers in particular is a function of extrinsic and intrinsic factors (Ezenwafor, 2006). Onwuchekwa (1996) posited that motivation is a vital intrinsic factor in the performance of workers while Awotua-Efebo (1999) defined motive as what causes a person to act in a certain way and motivation as a choice of an activity a person makes plus the persistent intensity with which he performs the activity. Supporting the need to enhance business teachers’ motivation, Ayeduso (2000) recommended that in addition to adequate training of teachers, strategies to sustain their motivation should be designed and implemented because where they are not motivated, the program implementation will continue to suffer a great set back. In support of the above, Ezenwafor (2006) reported a study on strategies for motivating lecturers of tertiary institutions which found the following as suitable – provision of comfortable offices with computers and intercom equipment for lecturers, housing lecturers within or near the school, awarding study leave with full pay for higher degrees, subsidizing the cost of book publication, sponsoring lecturers to refresher courses and reduction in number of years it takes for a lecturer to qualify for a sabbatical leave. The above is in line with the stipulations of the aforementioned Minimum Standards for NCE business teacher education being used as a guide for lecturers but has more ideas which could be included in the expected reviewed version of the document since the current one has outlived its usefulness. Again, looking at the Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, the Vocational Education Department has the lecturers’ offices inadequately furnished and scattered at different locations which is very inconveniencing as it limits staff contact with one another and the Department which is necessary for effective performance. A situation where lecturers perform their functions in isolation inhibits growth for young ones who should learn from more experienced ones. Therefore, an enabling environment for this program to deliver as required demands that efforts be made for lecturers’ motivation to remain at optimum level by designing and implementing such strategies as outlined above.
4. Providing adequate infrastructural facilities and relevant (modern) equipment
On the need to improve the supply of equipment for business education, Egwuelu (1992) affirmed that unlike other school subjects that can be taught with or without equipment and facilities, business education, being concerned with psychomotor skills cannot be effectively taught without them. Also Azuka (2003) posited that the success or failure of business education curriculum at all levels of the education system depends largely on the availability and functionality of equipment and facilities. Despite the fact that availability of functional equipment is a sine qua non in vocational (business) education, research studies reveal that many institutions offering programs in business education do so without them. Oyedele (1985) reported that in some schools, typewriters were provided in the ratio of one to ten students while in others, the available equipment are obsolete and non-functional. The persistence of this situation has been reported in Oyedele (2002), Azuka (2003) and others. It is, however, a known fact that the provision of infrastructural facilities and equipment for business education programs is determined by the level of funding.
The minimum standards for NCE business teacher education program document being used as a guide outlined stipulations for
Classroom – The document stipulated that the classroom space should conveniently take thirty students and have sufficient room for passage as well as be available for each lecture and seminar.
Laboratory/Studio – The document stipulated that there should be a functional typing pool (now word processing) laboratory, model office and information technology room which students have access to both for practice and working of assignments..
Equipment – The document stipulated that the ratio of students/typewriters should be 1:1 and computers 1:5. That was in the era of typewriting. Now is the era of computers which demand that the ratio of students/computers should be 1:1.
Again in Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka classrooms used for business education lectures are open halls that are more or less a market place as several lectures go on at the same time with students who have no lectures sitting in groups and chatting loudly. The business education laboratory has computers but not in the minimum student/computer ratio yet most of the computers are non-functional. To worsen the situation, power supply to the laboratory is extremely irregular and the laboratory is not open for use by students except for practice exercises under the lecturers’ supervision.
In search of solution to the perennial problem of inadequate supply of equipment and facilities for business education programs in the country, Ezenwafor (2005) conducted a research study on strategies for improving the status of equipment for business education in which the findings supported the involvement of parents/guardians, business and industry, lecturers and the professional association of business educators, the business education department as well as lobbying legislators to increase government funding. The above strategies are perfectly in line with the UNDP’s views on the concept of capacity building which mentioned that it should be a continuing process in which all stakeholders participate..

Conclusion
The paper defined operational terms in the topic which are capacity building, standard and national development and went on to outline the objectives of business teacher education programs. It discussed standard in business education generally and business teacher education programs in particular relative to practices in the country’s institutions to show that recommended minimum standards are not being followed. Four dimensions to capacity building in business teacher education for standard and sustainable development in Nigeria, namely; increasing the number of lecturers, encouraging professional growth of lecturers, enhancing lecturers’ motivational level and improving the supply of infrastructural equipment and facilities, were fully discussed. Since lecturers are the centre of implementation of educational programs at the tertiary level, the need to maintain the minimum standard in lecturer/student ratio in business teacher education programs as well as give other incentives that will keep the lecturers optimally motivated for the work cannot be overemphasized. In addition, since skills cannot be acquired in the absence of adequate classrooms, laboratories plus relevant equipment and facilities, the need to employ suitable strategies such as those outlined in Ezenwafor (2005) which support and cooperation of government and all other stake holders such as business and industry, business teacher education lecturers and their professional association, parents and guardians, etc., .cannot be overlooked.

Recommendations
In the light of all the foregoing and in view of the enormous contributions of business education generally and business teacher education in particular to national development, the following recommendations are made which for adequate capacity in business teacher education:
1. The governments (local, state and federal) should give a greater attention to capacity building in business teacher education.
2. All stake holders in business teacher education at the institutional level, eg., management of the institution, head of the department, lecturers, students and their parents/sponsors should cooperate and relentlessly pursue implementation of the approved minimum standards.
3. Approved lecturer/student ration should be strictly adhered to at all institutions to reduce stress which has become a hazard of the academic profession.
4. Experienced business teacher education lecturers should mentor younger ones to enhance their professional growth.
5. Courses should rotate among lecturers in given option while a situation where lecturers are synonymous with given courses should be discouraged as it narrows their individual horizon.
6. Strategies should be designed and implemented by the government and management of institutions to keep lecturers’ motivation at optimal level.
7. Infrastructural facilities and relevant equipment should be adequately provided and maintained.


References
Akinola, J.A. (1992). Issues and standards in higher education: A perceptual educational problem. A paper presented at the 2nd National Workshop on supervisory and inspectorate service in the 6-3-3-4 system of education at the University of Ilorin.

Amaewhule, W.A. (2004). Business education and the challenges of standardization. Business Educational Journal 4 (2), 1 – 7.

Anowor, O.O. (2002). Reviving interest in education in the south east zone of Nigeria. In E.O. Akuezuilo and R.I. Egwuatu (eds.). Education at the Cross Roads in the South East Zone of Nigeria: Values, Perceptions and New Directions. Awka: Consultative Forum of Vice Chancellors of south east universities.

Aremu, E.A. (1987). Business teacher education: A case study of Oyo state. Business Education Journal 2 (1), 39 – 50.

Awotua-Efebo, G.B. (1999). Effective teaching: Principles & practice. Port Harcourt: Pengraphics.

Ayeduso, A.O. (2002). Status of educational resources in the administration of business education programs in colleges of education in Niger state. Business Educational Journal 3 (3), 182 – 190.

Azuka, E.B. (2003). Availability and functionality of business education equipment and facilities in selected polytechnics in Nigeria. Business Education Journal 4 (1), 96-106.
Davis, C.E. and Oladunjoye, G.T. (1987). A comparison of business teacher education programs: Nigeria and the United States. Business Education Journal 2 (1), 14 – 20.

Egwu, S.O. (2006). Educational Development in Governance. Abakaliki: Ministry of Information and State Origentation.

Egwuelu, J.G. (1992). Funds for business education and self-reliance. Business Education Journal 2 (4), 77 – 84.

Ejiofor, P. (2002). An opening address. In E.O. Akuezuilo and R.I. Egwuatu (eds.). Education at the Cross Roads in the South East Zone of Nigeria: Values, Perceptions and New Directions. Awka: Consultative Forum of Vice Chancellors of south east universities.

Emeruem, A.C. (1985). Business education: Prospects and problems. Nigerian Statesman, April 2, p 2.

Ezeji, C.E. (1992). The manufacturing and construction sector in the Nigerian economy. In E.S. Umebali and E.N. Madu (Eds.). Nigerian Economy: Issues & Methods. Nigeria: Acafix.

Ezenwafor, J.I. (2005). Strategies for improving the supply of equipment for business education in tertiary institutions in Nigeria. The Nigerian Journal of Education 4 (1), 1 – 7.

Ezenwafor, J.I. (2006). Strategies for motivating lecturers in tertiary institutions in the south east zone for better performance to assure quality in higher education. Nigeria Journal of Educational Administration and Planning 6 (1), 165 – 175.

Federal Republic of Nigeria (1998). National Policy on Education (revised). Lagos: Federal Government Press.

Igwe, A.O. (1992). Assessing employer satisfaction with vocational education graduates: A follow-up study of graduates from Alvan Ikoku College of Education. Journal of Technical Education 1 (1), 5 – 10.

National Commission for Colleges of Education (2002). Minimum Standards for Nigerian Certificate in Education (NCE) Vocational and Technical Education (3rd ed.). Abuja: Federal Govt. of Nigeria.

Ndinechi, G.I. (1987). Business teacher education: Which home? Business Education Journal 2 (1), 21 – 24.

Okeke, S.O.C. (2007). New approaches to capacity building and development in science and technology for wealth creation. A paper presented at the National Science and Technology (NASTECH) Week Apex Day Lecture.

Okoroma, N.S. (2002). A critical examination of factors affecting educational standards of secondary education in Rivers state. Journal of Technical and Science Education, 103.

Okwuanaso, S.I. (2004). Improving standard in business education in Nigeria. Business Education Journal 4 ( 2) 12 – 24.

Onwuchekwa, C.I. (1996). Managing Social Issues in Business Organisations. Enugu: Zikchuks Communications.

Oyedele, J.F. (1985). Perceptions of standards for undergraduate business teacher education program in Nigeria. A doctoral dissertation. University of North Dakota, USA.

Oyedele, J.F. (2002). Equipment and facilities in business education. A paper presented at the Annual National Conference of the Association of Business Educators of Nigeria at the Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Ede, Osun State.

Sanusi, J.O. (2002). Keynote address presented at the PGDPA and CPA graduation ceremony of the Administrative Staff College of Nigeria, 13th December.

Ukeje, B.O. (1996). Leadership: The bane of Nigeria’s development. A paper presented at a frontier lecture at Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka.































TEACHING STRATEGIES ENABLING LEARNING FOR CHILDREN EXPERIENCING READING DIFFICULTIES IN ANAMBRA STATE.

BY

ANYACHEBELU FAITH EBELE (Ph.D),

OBUMNEKE OKEKE M.I,

OBIDIKE N.D. (Ph.D)
DEPARTMENT OF EARLY CHILDHOOD AND PRIMARY EDUCATION NNAMDI AZIKIWE UNIVERSITY, AWKA NIGERIA.

AND

ANYAMENE, ADA (Ph.D)
DEPARTMENT OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING
NNAMDI AZIKIWE UNIVERSITY, AWKA - NIGERIA


Abstract
Reading difficulties is a learning problem that affects learners which teachers are expected to tackle to meet the learning needs of affected learners. The study therefore investigated the teaching strategies that enable teachers assist children experiencing reading difficulties with a view to helping such children achieve reading proficiency to acquire knowledge and skills like normal learners. The area of the study was Anambra State - Nigeria. The scope of the study covered teachers' knowledge of learner reading-behaviours that show children experiencing difficulties with reading and the strategies they perceive appropriate for assisting affected children achieve reading proficiency. All the primary school teachers constituted the population while simple random sampling technique was used to select one thousand teachers (500 urban, 500 rural). Two research questions, two null hypotheses, a 30-item researchers-developed, duly validated and reliability tested questionnaire structured on 4-point rating scales guided the study. Findings revealed that both urban and rural teachers lack good knowledge of learner reading behaviours that show children experiencing reading difficulties; they also have little knowledge of the strategies they can use to assist children experiencing reading difficulties achieve proficiency in reading. This implies that children experiencing reading difficulties do not receive instructional attention that would facilitate learning for them. Based on the findings the researchers recommended that pre-service teacher's education curriculum be expanded to include study of learning problems and strategies teachers can use to handle such problems to assist children experiencing such problems learn effectively.


Reading to a large extent is the activity of the learner and it is the main activity from which the totalities of knowledge and skill acquisition hinge on. The role of the teacher is to direct and build strong framework that propels the learner throughout the learning period and after; where the teacher fails to achieve this goal, the learner suffers a serious set back from poor performance in school work to frustration which may result in dropping out of school. In countries where English is the first language such individuals speak well but might not write or read well. This experience lasts throughout life and it can create a whole lot of gaps between such individuals and their peers in the wider society. The situation is completely different in countries that have English as their school language. Reading difficulties have and is still receiving attention from educational psychologists all over the world (Elliot, Travers, Karotchil & LittleCook, 2002; Woolfolk, 2006; Kristo & Bamford, 2007; Omrod, 2008, Frey & Glascoe, 2006). Experts are particularly interested in reading difficulties because of its effect on the future of affected children whose case would have been successfully dealt with had the teacher detected it on time. Reading difficulties and dyslexia have been expressed as one and the same learning problem (Kiel, 2002; Chitle, 2004); other studies show that they are separate and distinct problems experienced by learners (Elliot et al 2006; Stanovich, 1988). These psychologists believe that dyslexia results from differences in how the brain processes written and spoken language while reading difficulties results from non-neurological deficiency with vision or hearing; and from poor or inadequate reading instructions. Many external factors such as parental education and financial status, unstimulating home environment and inadequate and inappropriate classroom instruction can pose reading difficulties to children. Other factors include mental retardation: low IQ and hearing impairment which can contribute to environmental factors or independently cause reading difficulties (Hamilton & Glascoe, 2006). Studies have shown that reading difficulties is one problem that to a great extent adversely affects the total performance of affected children throughout their education life if not addressed (Meadows, 2009; Chall, 1996; Kaplan, 1995). Chall emphasizes that reading difficulties hinders learners' education progress in learning academic content in all areas. In a recent study carried out in America by the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) (2007); content in all areas. In a recent study carried out in America by the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) (2007); 36% percent of fourth graders and 27 percent of twelfth graders cannot read at the basic level. They lack comprehension skills, they cannot extract the general meaning or make obvious connections between the text and their own experiences or make simple inferences from the text. This study also found out that reading difficulties is more common in boys that in girls and are substantially more common in minority children. The Nigerian situation is not different (Olirie, 2007). It is worrisome because reading proficiency is the backbone on which knowledge and skills acquisition depends. The role of the classroom teacher is enormous involving not only knowledge and skills imparting and classroom management both of which incorporate social, emotional and psychological moulding of learners; it also involves close monitoring of learner reading-behaviours to identify problems that may hinder achievement of reading proficiency which in turn would inhibit acquisition of knowledge and skills. The difficulty in identifying reading difficulties in children lies in the fact that some normal children also exhibit those reading behaviours that characterize difficulties in reading, Woolfolk (2004) opines that reading difficulties increase as the child progresses to higher classes because of the enlarged vocabularies and the complexities of the learning tasks. The extent to which teachers know that some children in their class who cannot read fluently is as a result of experiencing difficulties with reading not carelessness or laziness; and teachers' realization that these category of children need certain types of teaching strategies to help them achieve reading proficiency and facilitate learning for them; remain issues for serious attention. Reading difficulties are common and the prevalence is high (Olirie, 2007); attention in the learning process should be shifted to this learning problem that has continued to silently undermine the efforts of learners to achieve reading proficiency to facilitate knowledge and skills acquisition.
The Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to draw teachers’ attention to one of the learning problems that militate against effective acquisition of knowledge and skills by learners. Specifically it sought to investigation
1. Teachers' knowledge of learner reading-behaviours that show reading
difficulties.
2. The strategies teachers perceive appropriate for assisting affected learners
achieve proficiency in reading.
Significance of the Study
The findings of this study will benefit governments and teachers the world over. Governments have always thought that learning problems should be taught to teachers of special education. They loose sight of the fact that there are some children who have learning problem which do not demand the attention of special education schools. The findings of this study would throw light on the need for the government to expand the curriculum of pre-service teachers generally to include learning problems. Teachers would come to know the learner reading-behaviours showing reading difficulties and the teaching strategies they can use to assist affected children to achieve reading proficiency which will make for better comprehension of ideas or information. Teachers would also come to realize and face that fact that their job does not only involve the use of the most effective pedagogical skills in teaching but also involve observing problems that negatively affect learner's performance and their total learning outcome.
Research Questions
The following research questions guided the study
1. What learner reading-behaviours show a learner experiencing difficulties
with reading?
2. What strategies do teachers perceive appropriate for assisting children
experiencing difficulties with reading achieve proficiency?




Null hypotheses
The following null hypotheses guided the study at 0.05 level of significance
1. Teachers in urban and rural areas will have no significant difference in their knowledge of learner reading-behaviours that show learners experiencing difficulties with reading.
2. Teachers in urban and rural areas will have no significant difference in their perceptions of teaching strategies they can use to assist children experiencing difficulties with reading achieve proficiency.
Methodology
The design of the study was survey. The area of the study was Anambra State. Two research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. All the primary school teachers in the area of study constituted the population for the study. Simple random sampling technique was used to select ten urban and ten rural schools; and fifty teachers each from urban and rural schools. This therefore brought the total sample size to one thousand. A 30 item researchers-developed questionnaire structured on four point rating scales of Strongly Agree (4points), Agree (Spoints), Disagree (2points) and Strong Disagree (Ipoint) was used to collect the data used for the study. The instrument had three parts A, B and C. Part A sought such demographic information as name of school, local government area and location of school; part B sought teachers' knowledge of learner reading-behaviours that show experiencing difficulties with reading while part C sought teachers' perception of teaching strategies that can assist learners experiencing difficulties with reading achieve proficiency. The instruments were validated by experts in educational psychology. Cronbach Alpha was used to establish the internal consistency of the items. It yielded the reliability values. 0.76 and 0.87, the reliability values were high and so the instruments were used for the study. Five trained research assistants including the researchers collected the data used for the study. Mean scores were used for analyzing the research questions. Mean values of 2.50 and above were accepted, below 2.50 were rejected, t-test was used to test the null hypotheses.







Results
The results are presented in the order of the research questions Research question one
Table 1: Urban and rural teachers' mean responses measuring their knowledge of learner reading-behaviours showing experiencing difficulties with reading.

Urban teachers Rural teachers
Items
X
DECISION X
DECISION
A child is said to be experiencing reading
difficulties if the following learner
reading-behaviours are persistently
exhibited
Accepted Rejected
Accepted Accepted Rejected
Accepted Rejected
Rejected Accepted
Accepted
2.62 2.27
2.54 2.58
2.32
2.56 2.35
2.33 2.68 2.55
2.21 Rejected 2.71 Accepted 2.48 Rejected 2.44 Rejected 2.33 Rejected 2.61 Accepted 2.51 Accepted 2.40 Rejected
1. Reads with prompting
2. Cannot sound out unknown words but
knows Phonies
3. Inserting letters
4. Reads very slowly
5. Becomes visibly tired after reading for
only a short time
6. Substitutes words and sounds
7. Reverse letters
8 Omits words or letters
2.41 Rejected 2.32 Rejected
2.26 Rejected 2.11 Rejected 2.55 Accepted 2.81 Accepted 2.19 Rejected 2.56 Accepted 2.61 Accepted 2.51 Accepted
9. Misspells high frequency sight words
(pronouns)
10. Cannot get most spellings when copying
from the board or book
11. Numerous erasures on written work
12. Poor reading comprehension
13. Fidgeting hands and voice
14. Unable to decode syllables or single
words
2.36 Rejected 2.41 Rejected
15. Unable to associate single words or
syllables with specific sounds


Table 1 above shows that teachers in urban and rural areas have little knowledge of learner reading-behaviours that show experiencing difficulties with reading. Out of fifteen items urban teachers know only six items. These are items, 1, 4, 5, 7, 13 and 14. They scored mean values 2.56, 2.68, 2.55, 2.71, 2.55 and 2.81 respectively. The rest of the items were rejected, all of them scored mean values below 2.50. Teachers in rural areas know only eight items. These are items 1, 3, 4,
1. 8, 12, 13 and 14. They scored mean values 2.62, 2.54, 2.58, 2.61, 2.51, 2.56,
2.61 and 2.51 respectively. The rest of the items were rejected, all of them scored
mean values below 2.50










Research question two
Table 2: Urban and rural teachers mean responses on the strategies they perceive appropriate for assisting children experiencing difficulties with reading achieve proficiency
Items Urban teachers Rural teachers
X DECISION X DECISION
1 Give individualized attention 2.36 Rejected 2.41 Rejected
2. Read aloud to children 2.69 Accepted 2.53 Accepted
3. Use audio-visual materials 2.43 Rejected 2.47 Rejected
4. Give homework assignment 2.51 Accepted 2.60 Accepted
5. Teach phonemes (individual sounds) 2.66 Accepted 2.58 Accepted
6. Use letter cards (manipulative) 2.40 Rejected 2.36 Rejected
7. Teach phonics (sound spelling 2.50 Accepted 2.52 Accepted
relationship)
8. Create opportunities for independent and 2.49 Rejected 2.35 Rejected
group reading
9. Use incentives for reinforcement and 2.51 Accepted 2.30 Rejected
motivation to foster love for reading
10. Teach reading and writing 2.21 Rejected 2.38 Rejected
simultaneously
11. Encourage children to read aloud quietly 2.45 Rejected 2.33 Rejected
12. Introduce use of computer games 2.34 Rejected 2.40 Rejected
designed for sound/word play
13. Associate sounds with concrete objects 2.42 Rejected 2.46 Rejected
14. Teach children self-questioning 2.31 Rejected 2.26 Rejected
15. Encourage children to read story books 2.54 Accepted 2.62 Accepted
that catch their interest

Table 2 above shows that both urban and rural teachers disagree with the same items. These are items 1, 3, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14. For urban teachers these items scored 2.36, 2.43, 2.40, 2.49, 2.21, 2.45, 2.34 2.42 and 2.31 respectively. Rural teachers scored 2.41, 2.47, 2.36, 2.35, 2.30, 2.38, 2.33, 2.40. 2.46 and 2.26 respectively.


Hypotheses
Hypothesis one
Table 3: t-test comparison of mean responses of urban and rural teachers on learner reading-behaviour that show children experiencing reading difficulties

Respondents N X SD DF t-cal t-crit. Prob Decision
Urban 500 2,7 0.56 Null hypothesis
980 0.52 1.86 P>0.05
Rural 500 2.8 0.53 Accepted

Table 3 above showed that t-calculated is less than t-critical at 980 degree of freedom. Therefore there is no significant difference between the responses of urban and rural teachers on learner reading-behaviours that show children experiencing difficulties with reading. The null hypothesis is therefore accepted.

Hypothesis two
Table 4: t-test comparison of mean responses of urban and rural teachers on strategies they perceive appropriate for assisting children experiencing difficulties with reading achieve proficiency.

Respondents N X SD DF t-cal t-crit. Prob Decision
Urban 500 2.5 0.54 Null hypothesis
980 1.41 1.74 P>0.05
Rural 500 2.3 0.5 Accepted

Table 4 above showed that t-calculated is less than t-critical at 980 degree of freedom. Therefore there is no significant difference between the responses of urban and rural teachers' perception on the strategies they can
use to assist children experiencing difficulties with reading to achieve reading proficiency. The null hypothesis is therefore accepted.

Discussion
The results of research question one showed that both urban and rural teachers disagree with the same items as learner reading-behaviours that show children experiencing difficulties with reading. Hypothesis one also show that there is no significant difference between the responses of urban and rural teachers on learner reading-behaviours that show children experiencing difficulties with reading. These findings collaborate the work of Ithe (2004), who found out in his study that poor curriculum content not only produces teachers with narrow knowledge of learning problems of leaners but also affect teachers' ability to identify these problems in learners. For urban and rural teachers to give the same response is symbolic. The teachers' education curriculum may not have equipped them with the ability to identify reading difficulties in learners. This lapse has serious implications for the affected learners and the education system. Teachers might take children exhibiting behaviours showing experiencing reading difficulties to be unserious with learning and so such children would not receive the type of attention expected from their teachers; and they will grow with the problem. Unfortunately, this problem affects the individual for life and it is correctable. A great many of school drop-outs in the world today are people who suffered this learning problem. It affects general performance and becomes complicated as the individual progresses to higher class because of the complex nature of learning tasks and increased vocabulary. It is important to note that an individual who cannot read finds it difficult to write. This explains why it affects the general performance of affected children; frustrate them and result in their consequent drop-out from school. Teachers should seriously watch out for difficulty with rhyming games, difficulty learning the alphabets, difficulty learning to associate sounds with letters, failure to recognize the letters of alphabet by the start of kindergarten and delayed or impaired speech or language; they are indicators of risk of future reading difficulties (Hamilton & Glascoe, 2006). The findings of research question two showed that teachers perceived few numbers of items as strategies that could assist children experiencing difficulties with reading achieve proficiency. Result of hypothesis two showed that there is no significant difference between the responses of urban and rural teaches on strategies that could assist children experiencing difficulties with reading achieve proficiency. Unud (2003) in his study of classroom behaviour and teacher's intervention opines that teachers sometimes address learning problems unknowingly with their methods. All the items in research question two are strategies for assisting children experiencing difficulties with reading achieve proficiency. Taking note of individual learner's classroom reading behaviours for early intervention against observed learning problems and varying of methods would achieve greatly in this respect Teachers should simultaneously teach reading and writing; this method equips children better to read. Meadows (2009) after many years of research in the development of language and literacy skills with children came up with the principle that children learn to read easily if they are first taught to write. Writing helps children get better mental picture of the sound being written, it makes them become more able to encode letters faster in the memory which comes as a result of several practice of writing through the process of errors and correction. Teaching writing and reading simultaneously therefore gives a child a great learning experience because children derive pleasure repeating learning activities. Read aloud is one strategy that prepares children's ears for distinguishing sounds, trains them to sit still for longer time and to be fluent readers; it also encourages both independent and group reading. Use of computer games helps children build vocabulary because it affords varieties of games with both letters and words. Teachers should provide concrete objects representing the different sounds. Every learner enjoys and makes much meaning learning with instructional materials. Learners grasp information better when they see, feel and touch instructional materials; children are best suited to be given this opportunity. Using objects to learn keep children active and absorbed in the learning process. Active engagement in the learning process makes children concentrate for longer periods of time (Estes, 2004); in this way the individual is unconsciously being trained to develop good study habit. Children from kindergarten should be encouraged to read story books especially ones that catch their interest. Montessori (1967) asserts that the child chooses what he wants for his own use, and works with it according to his own needs, tendencies and special interest; in this way, the learning material becomes a means of growth. The teacher has a lot of roles to play for the sake of assisting learners especially those experiencing reading difficulties thrive; identifying children experiencing reading difficulties is one of those roles.
Recommendation
The curriculum of instruction for teacher education should be expanded by the government to accommodate learning problems. This idea is an important one for those children who suffer such learning problems that do not require special education and who are found in classrooms with normal children. Such training will equip teachers with the skills to identify reading difficulties and other related learning problems. A lot of children are affected by this problem and teachers do nor know. For teachers who are already in the field, it is important that government organizes workshops and seminars to teach them learning problems and strategies for assisting affected children learn. Parents should be part of their children's educational growth. It will afford them the opportunity to observe their learning behaviours. In this way parents would partner with teachers to give affected children the needed solid foundation in achieving reading proficiency.
Conclusion
Reading is a learner activity but not without the guidance of the teacher. Such guidance builds the foundation for reading proficiency. The extent to which this is achieved depends on the teacher's ability to observe learning problems especially difficulties with reading and provide early intervention.


References
Chali, J.S. (1996) Stages of Development New York: Harcourt Brace College Publishers
Chitle, T. (2004). Learning to Read. Awka: JBooks Ltd.
Elliot, S.N., Travers, J., Karotchill, T. & Little Cook, P. (2002). Effective Teaching: Effective Learning. Boston: McGraw Hill.
Estes, L.S. (2004). Essentials of Child Care and Early Education. Boston: Pearson Education
Freu, N. & Fisher, D. (2007) Reading for information in Elementary School. New Jersey: Merrill Prentice Hall.
Hamilton, S.S. & Glascoe, P.P. (2006) Evaluation of Children with Reading Difficulties http://www.aaf.pom/afp/20061215/2079.html.
Ithe, D. (2004). Diverse Needs of Learners. Onitsha: Pillar House. Kiel, C. (2002). What is Dyslexia? twite: Omep.
Kristo, J.V. Bamford, R.A. (2004). A comprehensive framework for helping students become independent readers. K-6 New York: Schorlastic.

McLaugh, M. & Devoogd, G.L (2004). Critical Literacy: Enhancing Student's comprehension of text. New York: Schorlastic.

Meadow, F.L (2009). What you can do about Reading. Kennesaw; KSU, Montessori, M. (1967). The Discovery of the Child. New York: Ballantine Books. National Assessment of Educational Progress (2007). US Education Department. Olirie, G. (2007). Survey Study of Reading Problems. Nsugbe Pap House.

Ormrod, J.E. (2007). Educational Psychology: Developing Learners. Boston:
Pearson Education. Oro, J. (2007). Curriculum Instruction for Pre-service Teachers. India: VJay.

Stanovich, ICE. (1988). Exploring the Differences between the Dyslexic and the garden-variety poor Reader: the phonological core variable difference model Journal of Learning Disabilities. Vol. 35(8) pp.36-87.

Unud, F. (2007). Learning Problems and Teachers'Intervention. India: VJay. Wooifork, A. (2004). Educational Psychology. Boston: Allyn and Bacon















ATTITUDE OF SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL FEMALE
STUDENTS IN AN AM BRA STATE TOWARDS SEXUALITY
EDUCATION: IMPLICATION FOR COUNSELLING

BY

MMADUAKONAM, ANENE EUNICE Ph.D
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
NWAFOR ORIZU COLLEGE OF EDUCATION,
NSUGBE ANAMBRA STATE


Abstract
This study sought to find out the attitude of secondary school female students in Anambra State towards sexuality education. A descriptive research design was adopted for the study. One research question and two null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The population of the study consisted of all female students in senior secondary schools in the three senatorial zones of the State. A sample of 600 students was selected through stratified random sampling technique. The instrument used for data collection was a likert type questionnaire constructed by the researcher and dully validated. The research question was answered using the mean and standard deviation, while the null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance using t-test statistics. The results of the study showed that generally students showed positive attitude towards sexuality education. There was no significant difference in the mean scores of middle adolescents and late adolescents on their attitude towards sexuality education. There was a significant difference between the attitude of female students in urban and rural schools towards sexuality education. Based on the findings, implication for counselling were highlighted.


During adolescence two major changes occur in the reproductive system of the girls. These major changes are the development of primary and

secondary sex characteristics. All the organs associated with reproduction grow enormously and teenagers' sexual interests and behaviour tend to increase during this period. Females' body contours and attractive physique make them very pretty and they attract males. Sex drive starts properly during puberty so our young girls need sexuality education.
The Nigerian Association for the Promotion of Adolescent Health and Development (NAPAHD) has alerted that an hospital based research revealed that, 80 percent of the patients with abortion complications are adolescents (Adcpoju, 2005). This assertion was based on the fact that, over 16 percent of teenage females reported first sexual intercourse by age 15.
Isangedighi (1986) pointed out that in the past, a girl who surrendered her virginity before marriage was a symbol of disgrace to herself, family and immediate community. Today, the old virtues have been thrown to the dogs and children are no longer prepared to wait for marriage before daring to be sexually achieve. Adolescent sexuality worldwide is a topical issue due to increase in unwanted pregnancies, unsafe abortions, early child bearing, sexually transmitted diseases, STDs and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDs). The health of female adolescents is at risk and being a social issue adolescents' sexuality concerns every citizen of this country.
The Action Health Incorporated (AHI) (2003) described sexuality education as "a planned process of education that fosters the acquisition of factual information, the formation of positive attitudes, beliefs and values as well as the development of skills to cope with the biological, psychological, socio-cultural and spiritual aspects of human sexuality". Also sexuality education leaches us that, religious principles, beliefs, rules and regulations and ethical considerations affect our everyday interactions. Sexuality education is a lifelong process of acquiring information and forming attitude, beliefs and values about identity, relationships and intimacy (Gardon et al, 1998}, It encompasses sexual development, reproductive health, interpersonal relationships, affection, intimacy and gender roles. The need for sexuality education cannot be overemphasized. However, it is necessary that the attitude of the recipients should be ascertained.
Meyer (1995) views attitude as beliefs and feelings which predispose our reactions to objects, people and events. According to him attitudes like stereotypes and prejudices exert powerful effects on behaviour. Attitude is a mental set or disposition. It is a predisposition to respond in a particular way. So the writer wants to ascertain the attitude of female senior secondary students towards sexuality education.

Statement of the Problem
Every passing day witnesses free and open approach to sex among adolescent girls. The society appears to be witnessing a deviant revolution in adolescent sexuality. Most of these girls are not well informed about the consequences of their actions. The situation is causing rifts within and between families. Recent trends in urbanization and information technology tend to compound the problem. The social tension, stress and inner turmoil among individuals and anxiety caused to families by adolescents' sexuality call for sexuality education. Parents are not helping issues as most of them tend to shy away from that aspect of education. One is concerned with the rate of increase in STDs especially AIDS, unwanted pregnancies, abortion, abandoned babies, school drop outs due to teenage pregnancies which are the inevitable result of increase in adolescents' sexual activities and promiscuity. Instead of apportioning blames, we should look for constructive and result oriented solutions. One of the solutions is sexuality education but the question is "what is the attitude of senior female students towards sexuality education"?. Tolupe and Abosede (2007) found that sexuality education has not been fully incorporated into some schools and much about what is known about sexuality is mainly received from peers who are often ignorant about these issues and provide either erroneous or inadequate information.

Purpose of the Study
The major purpose of this study is to ascertain the attitude of senior secondary school female students in Anambra State towards sexuality education, specifically, the study set out to:
1. find out the general attitude of senior secondary school female
students towards sexuality education,
2. examine the attitude of middle and late adolescent female students
towards sexuality education.
find out if the attitude of urban secondary school female students towards sexuality education differ from those of rural secondary school female students.
To achieve these objectives, one research question and two hypotheses were formulated to guide the study.




Research question
What is the attitude of senior secondary school female students towards sexuality education?

Research Hypotheses
HO1 There is no significant difference in the mean scores of middle adolescents and late adolescents on their attitude towards sexuality education.
HO2 There will be no significant difference between the attitude of female students in urban and rural senior secondary schools towards sexuality education.

Methodology
The study adopted a survey design aimed as finding out the attitude of senior secondary school female students in Anambra State towards sexuality education. The population of the study comprises of all female students in public senior secondary schools in the three Senatorial zones of Anambra Slate. A total of 600 female students in senior secondary schools (300 middle adolescents and 300 late adolescents) were used for study. This sample also consisted of 300 female students from urban senior secondary schools and 300 from rural senior secondary schools. Thus 4 senior secondary schools were sampled from each senatorial /one using stratified random sampling to reflect the rural urban setting. Twelve schools were sampled and in each school selected, 50 students were obtained made of 25 students between the ages of 14 and 16 years (middle adolescents) and 25 students between the ages of 17-19+ and older (late adolescents) using stratified random sampling technique.

Instrumentation
The instrument for the study was a structured 25-item questionnaire which was duly validated. Section one was on the bio-data and requested students to state their class, age and location of the schools.
Section two was on the attitude of students towards sexuality education, the students were required to indicate the level of agreement or disagreement on a four point Likert type scale of Strongly Agree (four points) Agree (three points) Disagree (two points) and Strongly disagree (one point).

Procedure for Data Collection
The writer visited the 12 sampled schools and administered the questionnaire with the help of the school guidance Counsellor or teacher Counsellor. Because of the sensitive nature of the issue, the writer had adequate discussions and explanations with the students before they responded to the questionnaire.

Data Analysis
The research question was answered using the mean and standard deviation. An item with a mean score of 2.5 and above is deemed positive. The hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level alpha level using t-test statistic.


Results
The results of the study are presented in accordance with the research question and hypotheses.

Research question:
What is the attitude of senior secondary school female students in Anambra State towards sexuality education? Table one below shows the answer.


























Table 1: Means and standard deviations of Responses on the Altitude of senior secondary school female students Towards Sexuality Education.
N = 600
S/N
Items X S.I)
1 Sexual activity outside marriage is harmful so I do not need sexuality education. 2.33* 0.98
2
Sexuality education will reduce my anxiety and curiosity over sex. 2.51 1.03
3 1 want to understand the physical, emotional and social changes at puberty. 3.36 0.80
4 1 need adequate knowledge about human sexuality 2.94 0.93
5 1 want to be taught the consequences of having sex. 2.62 1.00
6 1 feel that sexuality education will increase my urge for sexual intercourse. 2.41* 1.02
7 1 need to know the basic facts of human reproduction. 3.10 0.96
8 1 want to learn non sexual ways of showing affection. 2.78 1.04
9 1 want to be taught the consequences of having pre-marital sex. 2.63 0.99
10 1 want to learn skills to resist peer pressure to be sexuality involved 2.86 0.88
11 I want to know the risk of unwanted pregnancy. 3.09 0.99
12 1 need information on reproductive health and sexuality. 3.28 0.92
13 I feel that total abstinence from sexual intercourse is the only option for teenagers.
2.44*
0.96
14 I want to know more about sexual intercourse. 2.52 1.23
15 I want to know acceptable ways of showing affection. 3.22 0.82
16 I want to be educated on the use of condom. 3.67 0.76
17 I need information on the consequences of abortion. 2.86 0.88
18 I need to be educated on the effects of contraceptives. 2.56 0.99
19 I want to learn how to establish and maintain healthy relationship with the opposite sex without intercourse. 3.40 0.88
20 I need information on how to form healthy attitude towards sexuality. 2.59 1.12
21 I need to know how HIV and STDs are transmitted 3.14 0.87
22 I want to know the implication of teenage parenthood 2.64 1.16
23 I need information on birth control methods. 2.45* 0.94
24 I want to learn negotiation skills to postpone being sexuality involved. 2.76 0.91
25
I want to learn skills for responsible decisions about sexual intercourse. 2.55 1.02
*N.B. below the acceptable mean score of 2.5.

Table I reveals that senior secondary school female students have positive attitude towards sexuality education. Only items 1, 6, 13 and 23 were below the accepted mean of 2.5. Item one which slates that sexual activity outside marriage is harmful so I do not need education was rejected. Item 6 which states that 1 feel sexuality education will increase my urge for sexual intercourse was rejected. Items 13 and 23 were also rejected. Item 13 states that total abstinence form sexual intercourse is the only option for teenagers while item 23 states that I need information on birth control.
Hypothesis I: There is no significant difference in the mean scores of middle adolescents and late adolescents on their attitude towards sexuality education.



Table 2: t-test comparison of the Attitude of Middle Adolescents and Late Adolescents Senior Secondary School Female Students Towards Sexuality Education.

Variables
N X SD Df t-cal t-crit Decision
14-16 middle 300 72,87 21.50
598 1.16 1.96 Ho Accepted
17 and older late adolescents 300 70.71 24.05


The calculated t-value was 1.16. This was tested for significance at 0,05 level with 598 degree of freedom. The calculated t-value was less than the critical t-value. Hence, it was not significant. The null hypothesis that there is no significant difference in the mean scores of middle adolescents and late adolescents on their altitude towards attitude towards sexuality education is upheld.










Table 3: t-test showing the Attitude of Urban and Rural Senior Secondary School Female Students Towards Sexuality Education.
Variables N X SD df t-cal t-crit Decision
Urban 300 75.09 23.95 .598 5.73 1.96 Ho
Rejected
Rural 300 64.83 19.65





The calculated t-value was 5.73. This was tested for significance at 0.05 level with 598 degree of freedom, the calculated t-value was greater than the critical t-value, hence the null hypothesis was rejected and the alternative hypothesis that there is a significant difference between the attitude female students in urban and rural senior secondary schools towards sexuality education is accepted.

Discussion of Findings
Based on the analysis of data, the results of the study were discussed.
The only research question was asked to find out the attitude of senior secondary school female students in Anambra State towards sexuality education. The outcome of the study showed that female students have positive attitude towards sexuality education. The finding agrees with Obikeze (2001) who found that adolescents in Anambra State have positive attitude towards the use of condom. This is evident is item 16 where the students indicated that they want to be educated on the use of condom with the highest mean score of 3.67. Also the finding agrees with that of Unachukwu (2003) who found out that adolescent male and female have minimal knowledge of the aetiology of HIV/AIDS. This is reflected in item 21 where the students indicated that they want to know how HIV and STDs are transmitted with a mean score of 3.14. Infact a cursory inspection of students' responses reveal a call for sexuality education. We cannot deny the fact that our female students often experiment with sex, and need sexuality education.
In the United States where sexuality education is taught about 40% of the students reported that topics such as STDs and HIV, birth control, how to use and where to obtain information on birth control, and how to handle pressure to have sex were not covered sufficiently (Menlo Park & Kaiser 2000). They pointed out that the majority of Americans favour more comprehensive sexuality education over abstinence only education. Item 13 shows that students disagreed with abstinence from sexual intercourse as the only option for teenagers. In agreement with the students' attitude, the overwhelming majority of sexuality education teachers believe that students should be taught about puberty, how HIV and AIDs are transmitted, how to resist peer pressure to have sex, implications of teenage parenthood, abstinence from intercourse, dating, sexual abuse and non sexual ways to show affection (Darroch, 2002). As the study showed, the students are predisposed for sexuality education so topics such as birth control methods and how to obtain them, the correct way to use condom, sexual orientation and factual and ethical information about abortion, adverse effects of abortion, use of contraceptives and others should be highlighted. Restrictions imposed on sexuality education are preventing teachers from meeting their students needs.
Table 2 supported the null hypothesis that there is no significant difference in the mean scores of middle and late adolescents on their attitude toward sexuality education. This is so probably because these are full blown adolescents and because of the physical and physiological changes at this period they all have the sexual urge and need sexuality education. The age of 14 is the onset of pubescence and the child has attained full reproductive capacity.
Hypothesis two revealed that there is a significant difference between the attitude of female students in urban and rural senior secondary schools towards sexuality education. Students in urban schools have a mean score of 75.09 while those in rural schools have a mean score of 64.83. Probably this difference can be attributed to the exposure to modernity and urbanization. In urban cities some of these students roam the streets after school and are more exposed than their rural counterparts. They are more permissive than those in the rural schools. The fast pace of urbanization encouraged rapid improvement in communication, transportation which, had tremendous effect on sexuality issues in Nigeria. The use of telephones and letters helped to promote interpersonal relationship.

Counselling Implication
Based on the findings, counsellors can no longer afford to be complacent on the issue of sexuality education. Prevention is better than cure so counsellors should provide students with adequate information on human sexuality. Sexuality education should be an integral part of the counselling programme. School Counsellors should liaise with Post Primary School board and school authorities to determine the content of sexuality education curriculum. Seminars, workshops and conferences should be organized for parents on how to provide sexuality education for their children.

REFERENCES
Action Health Inc (AHI), (2003). Comprehensive Sexuality Education. Trainers' Resource Manual - Lagos. AHI.
Adepoju, Adunola, (2005). Sexuality and Life Skills Education. London: Pan press Publishers.
Darroch, J. E. (2000). Changing emphasis in sexuality education in U.S. Public Secondary Schools 1988-1999. Family Planning Perspectives 32(5):204~211.
Dumber, J. (2002). Exploring female sexuality (http:/www.expressnews.valberta.ca/article.cfm? id=3201). ExpressNews.
Gardon, F., Kelly, C., Kempner, M., Lamstein, E., Levine, A., Marrero, L. et al (1998). SIECUS Report 26(6).
Isangedighi, A. J.(1986). Adolescent sexuality in the Nigerian society. In D.N. Nwachukwu (ed) Contemporary Issues in Nigerian Education and Development. Enugu: Sam & Star Company. Pp. 281-290.
Menlo Park & Kaiser (2000). Sex Education in America: A view from inside the Nations Classrooms. Kaiser Family Foundations.
Meyer, D. G. (1995). Psychology. U.S.A.: Worth & Publishers.
Obikeze, N.J. (2001). Attitude of Anambra State Secondary Students towards the use of condom. In R. U. N. Okonkwo & R.O. Okoye (eds) The Nigerian Adolescent in Perspective 107-116.
Unachukwu, G.C. (2003). Awareness of the aetiology, clinical presentation and epidemiology of HIV/AIDS, among adolescents in Anambra State. In the Educational Psychologist: A Journal of the Nigerian Council of Educational Psychologist. 1:23-36.













YOUTH EMPOWERMENT AND NATION-BUILDING IN NIGERIA; THE COUNSELLOR'S VIEWPOINT

BY

FAN AKPAN FAN
CROSS RIVER UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
AKAMKPA CAMPUS
PMB 1171 CALABAR, CROSS RIVER STATE.,


MARGARET BASSEY ITA
CROSS RIVER UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
AKAMKPA CAMPUS,

OBI ABANG BICHENE
CROSS RIVER UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
AKAMKPA CAMPUS


&


OHIAMA OCHAGU
CROSS RIVER UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
AKAMKPA CAMPUS


Abstract
Youths are social engineers in any society. The focus of this paper is therefore the place of the National Youth Service Corps Scheme (NYSC), the National Directorate of Employment (NDE), the National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) in Nigeria's effort to tackle youth marginalization and how this translates into the socio- economic development in Nigeria. The NYSC established by Decree 24 of 1973 encourages members of the Corps to seek employment all over the country, thus promoting free movement of labour. Participants are exposed to the mode of living of the people in different parts of the country with a view to removing prejudices, eliminating ignorance and confirming, at first hand, the many similarities among Nigerians of all ethnic groups. The NDE runs the National Youth Employment and Vocational Skills Development Programme, Small Scale Industries and Graduate Employment Programme, Agriculture Sector Employment Programme and Special Public Works Programme. NAPEP has employed, so far, over 1,500,000 youths under the Capacity Acquisition Programme and 1,000,000 unemployed graduates under the Mandatory Acquisition Programme. Providing employment to youths is a prudent way of making them better not bitter and therefore fighting crimes often associated with idle hands. The paper recommends that more Nigerian youths be trained as craftsmen and technicians to make for self-reliance.

Keywords: Empowerment, employment, nation-building, NDE, NAPEP, youths.


Nigerian youths constitute the most active segment of the entire population of over 140 million people. They are the social engineers and a veritable channel or catalyst for positive changes in the rural community, in school or urban setting. These youths need love and a fair share of the national wealth. They are people with high hopes, great expectations from parents and elders in the society.
At this point, it is necessary to examine the concept of youth as a prelude to an appraisal of this social group. It should be noted that differences exist in perception of the term "youth" by governments, international organizations and the public. However, the term "youth" generally implies a period of life between childhood and adulthood. In most countries of the world, adult status is officially attained at the age of 21 years. Non-the-less, in many African countries, the ability of a person to enter into or sustain a marriage signifies to the public that one has attained adulthood. Hence, chronological age alone does not determine an adult status. It is noteworthy that with increasing modernization, there is a tendency for most African countries, at least in their official transactions, to follow the United Nations or the British Commonwealth definitions of youths as people within the age of 15'- 24 and 15 - 29 years respectively (Egbue, 2006). Quite appreciably, susceptibility of youth to parental and societal influences, which shape their lives and determine their well-being, constitutes a major characteristic of youth. This issue has been examined by Gelles (1987); Wallerstein and Kelly (1992). Accordingly, a large part of the problem of youths in all societies hinge on this factor: There is the tendency to associate youth sub-culture with deviance. Igbo (2000) describes this situation as one in which they are socialized into and committed to a set of values, standards, expectations and behaviour pattern, distinguishable from those of adult society.
Commenting on this, Jupp (1970) observes that youths sub-culture (contra culture i.e. existing mainly as a reaction against the dominant culture) rejects the adult world; it is confined effectively to those between puberty and thirty; it creates its own leaders and symbols; it demands "liberation," requires less and less adult cooperation for its sub-society to function; it frightens the adult world. In Jupp's view, the obvious divergence between youth sub-culture and the adult world tends to be quite bewildering for adults. This situation, of course, signifies what is generally termed "generation gap". Igbo (2000) finds this situation very worrying because the youth not only reject indigenous articles of clothing and other symbols of national and ethnic identity, but also manifest a wholesale rejection of Nigerian cultural beliefs. Indeed, youth sub-culture, a result of sustained frustration, tends to be delinquent. In this connection, Alaezi (1989) points out that the learners rejection of the society will result in the learner's passivity, inaction in contributing to societal development, his withdrawal behaviour from social responsibility and service and his perception of the society as not contributing anything to his well-being, progress and social living.
"Igbo (2000) observes that areas of youths rejection include values of community ownership, assistance to others as demonstrated in extended family relationships, sanctity of human life and female chastity before marriage. According to Egbue (2006) while seeking independence from adult expectations and demands, the youth enter into what may be regarded as a form of almost compulsive conformity and loyalty to the peer group. This is often marked by intolerance of deviance to the sub culture; a situation which helps to increase the cultural gap between youths and the older generation, thus further distancing the former from involvement in mainstream societal goal. Surely, youth violence is quite often viewed by social scientists as an expression of frustration. The militia activities in the Niger Delta of Nigeria speak volumes on the level of frustration of Nigerian youths in .that region.
All said, there is a rising wave of maladaptive behaviour among youths today, which has posed a big challenge to everybody. Nwafor (2006) succinctly asserts that most youths who are not gainfully employed become agents of social destabiiization and disunity, economic sabotage and thuggery. The economic implication of this unhealthy climate could be dire. The However, youths are children of present households of this nation and have learnt much of their current loose habits in their environment. There are not enough motivating examples for the youths to copy, such as make for juvenile discipline and natural law-abiding propensity, these days in Nigeria.

Youth Empowerment and its Agencies
Empowerment is a process of opening up something that has absolutely unlimited potentials. It means reducing vulnerability and dependency. This implies action not passivity and being at the centre, not on the periphery. Everett (1991) looks at empowerment of women as the broadening of choice; the expansion of opinions and alternatives available to women in determining the course of events, which will shape their lives and determine their own destinies. This suggests that individuals so empowered will be involved in the crucial issues of the nation. Living together peacefully; interacting and sharing in the same national issue is something that the youths can do effectively when empowered.
Over the years, the Federal Government of Nigeria has put in place some youth programmes. Some of them will be described here. The National Youth Service Corps Scheme (NYSC), the National Directorate of Employment (NDE) and the National Poverty Alleviation Programme (NAPEP).
In 1973, the Federal Military Government of Nigeria came out with the brilliant idea of the National Youth Service Corps Scheme created by Decree 24 of May, 1973. The aims of the scheme Fadeye (1978) are:
i) To inculcate discipline in our youths by instilling in them a tradition of industry at work and of patriotic and loyal service to the nation in any situation they may find themselves.
ii) To raise the moral tone of our youths by giving them the opportunity to learn about higher ideals of national achievement, social and cultural improvement.
iii) To develop in our youths attitude of mind acquired through shared experiences and suitable training which will make them more amenable to mobilization in the national interest.
iv) To develop common ties among our youths and to promote national unity by ensuring that:
(a) As far as possible, youths are assigned to jobs in states other
than their state of origin.
(b) Each group assigned to work together is as representative of
the country as possible.
(c) The youths are exposed to the modes of living of the people in
different parts of the country with a view to removing prejudices,
eliminating ignorance and confirming at firsthand the many
similarities among Nigerians of all ethnic groups.
(d) To encourage members of the Corps to seek at the end of their
corps service, career employment all over the country thus
promoting free movement of labour.
(e) To induce employers, partly through their experience with corps
members, to employ more readily, qualified Nigerians
irrespective of their state of origin.
(f) To enable our youths to acquire the spirit of self-reliance.
In 1986, the Federal Government of Nigeria established the National Directorate of Employment (NDE). This scheme was aimed at concentrating effort on the reactivation of public works, promotion of direct labour, promotion of self-employment, organization of artisans into cooperatives, and encouragement of a culture of maintenance and repairs. The programmes under NDE are:
National Youths Employment and Vocational Skills Development Programme which emanated from the realization that majority of the unemployed are youths without productive and marketable skills. The aim is to provide unemployed youths with the basic skills. Under this programme there is the National Open Apprenticeship Scheme aimed at providing unemployed youths with basic skills that are needed in the economy. This is achieved by attaching them as apprentices to compa'nies, ministries, parastatals and professional crafts men and women. Under this programme, the various artisans in our cities and villages are being organized into cooperative societies to facilitate the provision of financial and other assistance from government and the organized private sector.
There is an expanding array of skills being learned. Some examples are: auto-mechanics, electrical/electronic maintenance, welding/foundry/metal fabrication,
plumbing works, carpentry/joinery, leather works, photography, interior design, architectural draughtmanship, painting, computer operation, catering/bakery/confectionery, hairdressing, auxiliary nursing, typing and shorthand, tailoring/fashion designing and modelling.
The second scheme under this programme is Waste to Wealth. This scheme is created to encourage the conversion of hitherto neglected raw materials and other scraps and waste materials into useful, marketable products. For example, by sheer inventiveness, it is possible to use snail shells and other scrap materials to make furniture items, house decor objects, ashtrays, apparels, containers, toys and other functional items. Apart from creating employment opportunities for those concerned, this scheme helps in developing a culture of inventiveness and self -reliance in resource use, thereby curtailing wastefulness and importation of items that can be produced locally.
The Schools on Wheels scheme involves taking fully equipped mobile vocational training facilities to the rural areas. This scheme will become a cornerstone of rural employment and development. The Directorate has initiated schemes to bring the disabled into the mainstream of the gainfully employed by providing them with special facilities. This is to enable them to acquire appropriate skills and training, which would lead to self-employment or gainful employment Many -disabled people lack only ambulatory capability but usually possess full mental and manual dexterity. They can therefore be trained in such areas as assembly of electronic equipment and computer operations.
Small Scale Industries and Graduate Employment Programme is designed to encourage and aid unemployed Nigerians to set up and run their own businesses In order to help the participants translate their business ideas into viable commercial ventures, the NDE conducts courses in entrepreneurship prior to making loans available to them through its Job Creation Loan Guaranteed Scheme. An applicant is required to submit to the NDE a comprehensive feasibility report of the intended business, the amount of loan needed, names and addresses of two guarantors and his or her own curriculum vitae. The applicants' feasibility studies are submitted to banks for their scrutiny and approval.
Small scale industry ventures in operation include candle making, soap and detergent making, foundry works/metal fabrication, used products recycling, restaurants, fashion designing/tailoring, refuse collection, agricultural production, agricultural processing, printing and publishing, textile and garment making, polythene bag, manufacturing, furniture/cabinet works, timber marketing, auto-engineering services, refrigeration and air-conditioning services, block and concrete making and butchering and cold store.
Entrepreneurship, which involves recognizing a business opportunity, mobilizing resources and persisting to exploit that opportunity, is a necessary ingredient for self-employment. The NDE recognizes the importance of developing entrepreneurial thinking and behaviour among Nigerians. In this vein, ail applicants to the Small Scale Industries Scheme are given an intensive two-week orientation course under an Entrepreneurship Development Programme- The programme covers self-evaluation, business identification, market research and feasibility studies marshalling of resources to start a business, obtaining a bank loan, managing a business, record keeping and accounting, marketing management, legal aspects of business, etc.
Agriculture Sector Employment Programme is designed to provide self-employment in agriculture for school leavers and graduates with Degrees, Higher National Diploma (HMD), Nigeria Certificates in Education (NCE) and Ordinary National Diploma (OND) in agriculture or related disciplines. Those who are interested in farming are given the relevant training and orientation and provided with land and loans to start farming ventures.
The NDE implements its agricultural programmes at the State level in collaboration with State Governments. Each state has an NDE agricultural Programme Committee, which sees to the organization and implementation of the programme. The state government recruits the participants and also provides the land needed for farming. Rural communities also provide land through the appropriate local governments. In each case, land allocation certificates are issued to the NDE for land acquired.
There is also the school leavers’ agricultural scheme in the NDE programme. There are two options open to school leavers within this scheme. For those un- trained in agricultural methods the NDE arranges that each state provide two fully-staffed training farms of 250 hectares each.
Special Public Works is designed to provide immediate temporary employment to a large number of the unemployed. The objective is to utilize this valuable manpower resource in carrying out necessary public works using labour-intensive techniques and enable the participants to obtain short-term employment whilst acquiring new skills and trade experience.
The Obasanjo administration in 2001 came up with the National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) consisting of Youth Empowerment Scheme. National Resources Development Conservation Scheme (NRDCS), Rural Infrastructure Development Scheme (RIDS); and Social Welfare Services Scheme (SOWESS). The Niger Delta Development Commission has devised many schemes aimed at combating poverty in the nation's littoral region. What NNDC does, according to Adegbamigbe (2008), is to partner with computer training centres to assist in teaching youths information technology skills. Examples in Bayelsa are Blessed Initiative, Sagbama Local Government Area; SGS Technical Limited, Sunway Telecoms and Niger Delta Wetland. The NDDC pays N15.000 on each student for the period of training after which the Commission gives them starter packs.

Youth Empowerment and nation-building
Nation-building is associated with national integration, national consciousness, national unity, construction and modification of socio-political and economic structures so as to move with the times (Gotep, 2000). It is concerned with the overall development of a national economically, politically and socially. This view is corroborated by Mezieobi (1994) who submits that nation-building is a multi-faceted, complex process of building the socio-political and economic dynamics of a political society in such a way as to facilitate the polity's continued independent sustenance, development and growth. In the process, there is a concerted effort by the political leaders to integrate citizens who are naturally diverse in terms of their culture, religion language, economy, education and politics so as to form a united and stable society.
As a vibrant group, the educated and empowered youths can easily be mobilized positively. They can form formidable pressure groups to press home desirable changes in the political leadership at any tier of government. They can use their energy, determination and enlightened position to disseminate information to others so as to create political awareness and consciousness against evil and selfish political machinations. If youths are empowered, one can predict with some degree of certainty a more transformed Nigerian nation, most probably devoid of corruption, nepotism, political manipulation which have for long characterized Nigeria's political landscape.
Youth employment in agriculture not only ensures food sufficiency but also reduces unemployment rate, idleness and poverty. Sidi (2004) observed that unemployment compounds the problems the youths are facing in Nigeria. By being idle, they are prone to such vies as prostitution, armed robbery, rape. Nigerian girls in the rural areas could be mobilized and taught to keep poultry farms so as to have more meat for the home. Educated girls develop self-confidence in themselves, are more capable of accommodating others, can take decisions of their own and make choices according to their own independent judgments. This would be a great political investment of a high value for Nigeria.
The NYSC has helped to promote unity in a multi-ethnic country. The participants in the scheme are drawn from various universities and other higher institutions of learning. They are from diverse ethnic groups. The scheme encourages inter-state movement of Nigerian youths, affording them the unique opportunity of meeting and mixing freely with one another, knowing one another's anxieties, hopes, desires and aspirations as well as giving them the opportunity of discussing national and international affairs and making lasting friendship. This promotes mutual respect, trust and confidence and a clear understanding among the youths.
The scheme gives the corps members the opportunity to know more about other parts of the country, particularly the geographical features, the cultural backgrounds of the various ethnic groups making up the country, the diverse occupations of the people, the rate of the socio-economic development and a host of other valuable pieces of information. The scheme equally provides job opportunities for graduates in states where they serve depending on the manpower needs of such states. Also, the scheme encourages inter-tribal and inter-state marriages.
The NDE and NAPEP are agencies that generate employment for the teeming Nigerian youths.
NAPEP, through its Farmers Empowerment Programme, FEP, charged with food security to combat hunger, has disbursed a total of N240 million to 7,200 farming families. This Agency also says 52,000 people have so far benefited from its Youth Empowerment Scheme: an initiative geared towards imparting skills and knowledge to the youth after which they would receive financial support to start up business ventures. Some 109 unemployed youths from the 109 senatorial districts instability, bad leadership, religious intolerance, language diversities, engrained ethnic consciousness, moral decadence and majority-minority syndrome.

Recommendations
The paper considers the following recommendations apposite: (i) Education has a central role to play as far as empowering our youth for 'national development is concerned. Entrepreneurial education has become necessary in all our manpower development efforts in Nigeria principally because few new employments are being created by government departments and private organizations for the employable graduates from our secondary and tertiary educational institutions.
(ii) More Nigerian youths should be trained as craftsmen, technicians to make for self-reliance. Anya (2005) laments that lack of the technical and vocational orientation and content in Nigerian education had limited ultimately the achievement of the growth potential of the economy. The outcome constrained the opportunities for employment leading to the high unemployment rate seen among products at all levels of the educational system but much more so among university graduates.
(iii) Excessive reliance on the public sector for the provision of socio-economic resources and the creation of jobs has been the bane of development efforts in Nigeria. It has now been fully realized that the public sector alone cannot provide these facilities because of the limited resources at its disposal. Government must realize its limitations and create an enabling environment for the private sector participation in this regard.
(iv) Non-government organisations (NGOs) have a crucial role to play in poverty alleviation. One of the areas requiring an urgent attention is the mobilization and sensitization of the people and communities to perform their expected roles. These include enhancement of the political awareness of the people through formal and informal local organizations, leadership and citizenship training in the communities, promotion of the spirit of self-help and self-' reliance among the youths.
(v) The study of popular culture and its wider implications for teenager is an essential part of the education of young people in secondary schools and further education. Its attractions and distractions exert a major influence on the consciousness and action of people of this age. Essentially, all aspects of youth culture should be examined including their interrelationships; popular music, fashion and trends in terms of clothes and lifestyles and related subjects such as films and magazines.
(vi) There is a growing need for creativity in the modern day society. The society is characterized by complexity and interdependence, technological and communications advances. Rising expectations certainly call for increased levels of creativity.
(vii) Youths generally have a way of reinvigorating a society. They should adhere stubbornly to the do's and don'ts of their faith in order not to be distracted from their focus of nation-building.
(viii) Parents should bear in mind that if they do not invest in their children who are around them, such children will not have peace. Parents should also lead a godly life so as to lead their children aright. No child grows right under baneful influences at home since no straight wood can come out of the crooked timber.
(ix) It is advisable that the present generation does not become indulged into so many free services which may prove to be an over-bearing burden on the nation's resource base in the future, particularly when such lavish commitment of resources is based on the income from single depleting asset like petroleum.
(x) Zonal youth development centres should be established in the country for
entrepreneurial training which would enable the youths to establish their own businesses.

Conclusion
Lack of commensurate opportunities is clearly a major factor in youth alienation and violence. Indeed, the issue of unemployment poses a major problem for youths and requires both public sector and private sector participation to address it if we are to curtail youth marginalization. It should be noted that there appears to be a close link among poverty, poor dietary habits and crimes in any human society. There is no doubt that an enlightened and effectively mobilized youths is a critical factor for good governance, political stability as well as growth and development The slogan for the Federal Government of Nigeria should be "build the youths, build the nation". Our youths are precious resources of the country because they symbolize the hope for quality adult society.


References
Adegbamigbe, A. (2008). Empowering Niger Deltans. The News 30(1}' 29 - 34.

Alaezi, O. (1989). The Nigerian new school curriculum: Issues and insights. Jos: Ehindoro Press.

Anya, O. (2005). Nigerian education is still outward looking. Nigerian Education Times 6: 18-23

Egbue, N. G. (2006). Youth alienation and high incidence of sexual violence in Nigeria: A case study of Anarnbra State. Multidisciplinary Journal of Empirical Research 3(3): 115.

Everett, J. (1991). The global empowerment of women. Washington D.C Association for Women in Development

Fadeye, D. (1978). Current affairs essays on social studies based on Nigeria and Africa for secondary schools. Teacher Training Colleges and G.C E candidates, llesha: llesanmi Press.

Gelles, R. J. (1987). Family violence. London: Sage Publications.

Gotep, M. G. (2000). The contribution of social studies education towards nation-building. Social Studies Quarterly 3(1): 116-119.

Igbo, E. U. M. (2000). Nigerian youth rejection of traditional values in the name of development. UNIZIK. Journal of Sociology 1(1): 10-14

Jupp, J. (1970). The discontents of youth. In B. Crick & R. K. Merton (Eds.) Social Theory and Social Structure. New York: Free Pres.

Mezieobi, K. A. (1994). Social studies education and nation-building. In K. A Mezieobi (Ed.) Concern and Insights in Social Studies Education in Nigeria. Onitsha: Outrite Publishers.

Nwafor, N. H. A. (2006). Youth violence in the Niger Delta and its educational implications. Journal of Education in Developing Areas 15 (2): 227 -234.

Sidi, S. T. (2004). Education of the Nigerian youth: An imperative to national development. The Gurara Journal of Humanity Studies 2(1): 15-19.

TELL Magazine, No. 20, May 14, 2007, P. 20.

Ukpong, D. E. (1995). Obstacles to effective nation-building in Nigeria: The role of social studies. Nigerian Journal of Social Studies Review 4(2): 102 - 107.

Wallerstein, J. S, and Kelly, J. 6 (1992). How children react to parental divorce. In J. M. Henslin (Ed.). Marriage and Family in A Changing Society. New York: Free Press.





THE ROLE OF ADULT EDUCATION IN THE REDUCTION OF POVERTY IN ENUGU STATE

BY

OBETTA, K. CHUKWUEMEKA;

UKWUABA, LORETTA CHIKA

AND

OKENWA, GERTRUDE NKECHI

Abstract
This study was aimed at assessing the roles of Adult education in poverty reduction in Enugu State. Two research questions and one hypothesis were formulated and developed to guide the study. 195 Administrators of Adult education made up the population for the study. A 17-item structured questionnaire was developed by the researchers for collection of data for the study. Two experts in Educational Research method in the Department of Science Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka face-validated the instrument. The reliability of the instrument was tested using Cronbach Alpha estimate and a coefficient of .88 was obtained. The collected data were analysed by computing and comparing the mean scores and by the use of t-test statistics. The study revealed that the major effects of poverty on the people of Enugu State are lack of shelter, food and clothing, poor nutrition, prostitution and street life, poor health, high infant mortality, and corruption and bribery. Also, the major strategies employed by Adult education in the reduction of poverty in Enugu state are creation of interpersonal communication, encouragement of personal hygiene and environmental sanitation, eradication of illiteracy and creation of awareness through enlightenment campaign and training. The study recommended that state agency for mass literacy, adult and non-formal education should establish more Adult literacy centres in all the communities in the state, and that the three tiers of government should maintain an intensive enlightenment campaign to inform people of the need to participate in Adult education programme.

Adult education means the education of adults in any form and any means outside the regular, accredited education provided by formal school system, college or university. However, UNESCO (1987) advanced an internationally acceptable definition of adult education as:
The entire body of organizational educational process – whatever the content, level and method, whether they prolong or replace initial education in schools, colleges and universities, as well as in apprenticeship – whereby persons regarded as adults by the society to which they belong, develop their abilities, enrich their knowledge, improve their technical or professional qualifications or turn them in a new direction and bring about changes in their attitudes or behaviour in the two-fold perspectives of full personal development – social, economic and cultural development.

It then implies that adult education is an all-inclusive pattern of adult development which has in view, the need of the adult, not only as an individual but as a member of his community and which helps him to live more effectively in his society. The Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004) states that mass literacy, adult and non-formal education encompasses all forms of functional education given to youths and adults outside the formal school system, such as functional literacy, remedial and vocational education.
Based on the afore-going, adult education includes mass education, community development, vocational training, the learning of reading, writing and arithmetic, both informal activities, formal and non-formal education aimed at training the adult for his duties as a citizen of his state or society. Abnitio, the trend in adult education policies has been to focus on literacy education. Research has shown however, that basic literacy skills are not in themselves sufficient to make a significant impact on poverty reduction, though they do help a lot. Adult education is potentially much more than literacy or basic education. Duke (2004) maintained that successful adult education in multi-pronged. It requires grassroots, bottom-up development in a participatory, partnership approach, that includes recognition of indigenous knowledge, and starts with problems that are of immediate relevance to people’s contexts. Adult education does not only equip an individual to earn a living but also help him/her to enjoy a fuller life so that the individual can make a positive and worthwhile contribution to the community in which he lives. Therefore, many advanced countries mobilize the potentials of Adult education to deal with the problems of poverty.
According to Olaitan, Ali, Onyemaechi and Nwachukwu (2000), poverty may be defined as the scarcity of human basic needs, or the inability of an individual or society to acquire human basic needs for existence. The condition is such that the poor cannot acquire or possess enough money or materials to sustain him/herself and the large family. This drags him/her to the borderline of starvation, or death or other criminal strategies to acquire basic needs for existence (Gilbert & Gugler, 1992). Such individuals live in traditional substandard houses made up of mud or clay, thatches or straw materials without health facilities. The environment of the poor is usually filled with human waste. According to the Report of federal Office of Statistics, National Census Survey, Abuja (1996), the Nigerian poverty profile indicates that Nigerian poverty rose from 28.1 per cent in 1980 to 46.3 per cent in 1985. As at 1996, it was at 65.6 per cent, with 67 million poor people. The poverty indicators include low income, which tends to be at its worst in the rural areas due to lack of education, malnutrition, low-life expectancy, etc.
Poverty reduction, according to Agwaga (2002), is the effort to reduce the level of poverty of the indigenes of a nation to its minimal and barest state. Mackinnon and Reinikka (2000) noted that a poverty reduction action plan is essentially a device to making policies that are more focused on, and effective in reducing poverty. It is a process whereby policy statement and efforts are made to improve the conditions of living of individuals classified as poor. As education is a veritable instrument that brings about positive changes in the pattern of life of the people (Ndu, 2002), poverty reduction is one of the main objectives of adult education. Adult education, which is a kind of education that arrests the needs of the adults, is a very good approach that can help to reduce poverty in the Nigerian society. Therefore, Duke (2004) identifies three types of strategies (or competing paradigm) for reducing poverty through adult education. They are:
 Political-economical strategy. This strategy focuses on the role of the state in creating and distributing wealth.
 Neo-liberal strategy. This strategy focuses on the role of the market and how expanding markets can reduce poverty by creating employment.
 Social capital strategy. The third strategy focuses on the role of civil society, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and particularly local communities in creating social capital through self-organization and mutual help.
This shows that adult education can provide information about the rights of the poor, train the less educated in communication skills, and raise awareness about participation. Preece (2004) observed that there is urgent need to develop governance processes, which constitutes planning as a learning process involving all stakeholders actively, including organizations acting on behalf of the poor. In the economic domain, a more extended and more targeted system for basic education, agricultural extension and vocational training is urgently needed to help people to generate income, with collaboration among all parties to target the real needs of the poor. In the community, it is hypothesized that social capital helps to reduce poverty in income as well as in trust and reciprocity terms. In other words, to enhance functional adult education initiatives, there is need for holistic approaches through participatory community development activities.
Specifically, Udo (1999) stressed that adult education reduces poverty through the provision of vocational schools where adults and others go to improve their skills, learn crafts and so on, to make themselves more productive in the society. According to Olaitan (1996), vocational education provides not only farming and gardening skills, but also, arts performing skills such as story-telling, singing, music and dancing, needle work, and weaving, wood work, pottery and clay work, handicraft and home making/house keeping. He further stressed that adult education provides extension education for farmers. A typical example is the UNDP/FGN Assisted Nomadic Education Programme for cattle rearers; where farmers are educated on new agricultural process, crop improvement, and animal farming to improve their productivity and thereby reduce their poverty level.
From the fore-going therefore, education has been included as part of a composite poverty measurement. It is not just an input to poverty reduction in the sense of increasing productivity and incomes, but also, an asset, which can be realized in terms of entitlements to labour, capital, social welfare support, etc. There is the need to provide education services to the poor as it helps to reduce poverty by increasing the productivity of the poor, by reducing infertility and improving health, and by equipping people with the skills that they need to participate fully within their economy and society. The aim of poverty reduction through investment in education raises issues of the affordability and ways of improving overall educational provision, including increased allocation to basic education, non-formal, adult education, literacy programmes and pre-school education.
In Enugu State, a lot of initiatives and strategies have been developed and adopted to reduce poverty, especially through investment in education. However, the extent to which the strategies employed by adult education in poverty reduction has not been ascertained. Hence, the problem of the study posed as a questioned is: What are the strategies made by adult education in the reduction of poverty in Enugu State?

Purpose of the Study:
The study aimed at the following:
1. To identify the various effects of poverty on the people of Enugu State.
2. To ascertain the strategies employed by Adult education in the reduction of poverty in Enugu State.

Research Questions:
The following research questions were formulated to guide the study:
1. What are the various effects of poverty on the people of Enugu state?
2. What are the strategies employed by Adult education in the reduction of poverty in Enugu State?

Hypothesis:
There is no significant difference (P < 0.05) in the mean ratings of male and female adult education administrators on the strategies employed by adult education in the reduction of poverty in Enugu State.



Research Method:
The study adopted a survey research design as the researchers investigate the various strategies made by Adult education to reduce poverty in Enugu State. The population is made up of 197 administrators of Adult education (comprised of co-ordinators, alternate co-ordinators, supervisors and instructors) drawn from 3 local governments each, out of the 3 Senatorial zones in Enugu state. The Senatorial zones are Enugu East, Enugu North and Enugu West Senatorial Zones. There was no sample as the population is small and manageable.
The instrument used for data collection was the structured questionnaire, which the researchers designed and constructed. The instrument was face validated by two (2) experts; one in Educational research method in the Department of Science Education, and the other in Adult Education Department, both from University of Nigeria, Nsukka. They made corrections and modifications.
The researchers administered the validated questionnaire to 13 administrators of Adult education programme in Igbo-Etiti Local Government Area of Enugu North Senatorial Zone of Enugu State. The data obtained was used to test the reliability of the instrument. The local government where the pilot test was carried out was not part of the sample used. The reliability coefficient was determined using Cronbach Alpha method. At the end, reliability coefficient of .88 was obtained.
Finally, the questionnaire was administered to the respondents personally by the researchers within 4 weeks. 195 questionnaires were returned and correctly filled. It gave 98.99 per cent. Weighted mean was used to analyze the data collected, and the cut-off mean point was 2.50. t-test was used for the analysis of the hypothesis, at 0.05 level of significance. The null hypothesis will be accepted if the calculated value of t is less than the critical t-value.

Results:
Research Question 1: What are the various effects of poverty on the people of Enugu state?



Table 1: The Effects of Poverty on the People.
S/No. Effects of Poverty Mean Score Decision
1. Poor nutrition/under nourishment 3.93 Accepted
2. Lack of good shelter, food and clothing 3.95 Accepted
3. Prostitution and street life 3.46 Accepted
4. Corruption and bribery 2.66 Accepted
5. High infant mortality 2.67 Accepted
6. Poor health 3.38 Accepted
Grand Mean 3.34 Accepted


Table 1 above shows the effects of poverty on the people of Enugu State. The data revealed that poor nutrition or under nourishment had a mean score of 3.93 while lack of good shelter; food and clothing had a mean score of 3.95. Others are: prostitution and street life (3.46), corruption and bribery (2.66) and high infant mortality (2.67). Also, poor health had 3.38 as the mean score.
Therefore, it can be inferred from the analysis on Table 1 above that the major effects of poverty on the people of Enugu State are lack of good shelter, food and clothing; poor nutrition, prostitution and street life, poor health, high infant mortality and corruption and bribery.
Research Question 2: What are the strategies employed by adult education in the reduction of poverty in Enugu State?


Table 2: The Strategies employed by Adult Education in the Reduction of
Poverty.

S/No. Adult Education Strategies Mean Score
Decision
1. Provision of vocational schools 1.76 Rejected
2. Eradication of illiteracy 2.69 Accepted
3. Provision of extension education to farmers 1.41 Rejected
4. Provision of rural small-scale enterprises 1.99 Rejected
5. Creation of awareness through enlightenment campaign and training 2.52 Accepted
6. Encouragement of personal hygiene and environmental sanitation 2.70 Accepted
7. Creation of interpersonal communication which is the medium of interaction between members of the community 3.06 Accepted
8. Promotion of adults’ participation in decision making process in the community 2.18 Rejected
9. Provision of in-service training for adults to up-grade their deficiencies 1.27 Rejected
10. Promotion of the establishment of family planning units to cater for birth control 1.76 Rejected
11. Encouragement of adult farmers to form co-operative societies. 2.02 Rejected
Grand Mean 2.12 Rejected


Table 2 above shows the strategies employed by adult education to reduce poverty on the people of Enugu State. From the table, it was found out that the strategies are: provision of vocational schools (1.76); eradication of illiteracy (2.69), provision of extension education to farmers (1.41), provision of rural small-scale enterprises (1.99), creation of awareness through enlightenment campaign and training (2.52), encouragement of personal hygiene and environmental sanitation (2.70), creation of interpersonal communication (3.60), promotion of adults’ participation in decision making process in the community (2.18), and provision of in-service training for adults to up-grade their deficiencies (1.27). Promotion of the establishment of family planning units to cater for birth control had a mean score of 1.76, while encouragement of adult farmers to form co-operative societies had 2.02 as the mean.
Therefore, it can be deducted from the analysis on Table 2 above that the major strategies employed by Adult Education in the reduction of poverty in Enugu State include: creation of interpersonal communication; encouragement of personal hygiene and environmental sanitation, eradication of illiteracy and creation of awareness through enlightenment campaign and training.
HO1 There is no significant difference (P < .05) in the mean ratings of male and female adult education administrators on the strategies employed by adult education in the reduction of poverty in Enugu State.



Table 3: t-test Mean Ratings of Male and Female Adult Education Administrators on the Strategies Employed by Adult Education in the Reduction of Poverty.

Sex/
variables
x

SD
N Level of
Significance
df
t. Cal.
t. Tab
Decision
Male 2.09 1.07 157

0.05 156
Female 2.28 2.49 38 37
Total 4.37 3.56 195 193 0.03 1.97 Accepted


Table 3 above shows the results of the t-test for significant difference of null hypothesis of mean ratings of male and female adult education administrators in Enugu State on the adult education strategies employed in the reduction of poverty in the state. The table revealed that the calculated value of t is 0.03 and it is less than the critical t-value of 1.97, at 0.05 level of significance, and at 193 degree of freedom. This means that the null hypothesis of no significant difference between the mean ratings of male and female adult education administrators is accepted and upheld.




Discussion:
The findings presented an interesting study. It revealed that the respondents accepted that the major effects of poverty on the people are lack of good shelter, food and clothing, poor nutrition, prostitution and street life, poor health, high infant mortality, and corruption and bribery. In support of the findings, UNDP (1994) noted that poverty has effects on people longevity, knowledge and standard of living. In the opinion of Olaitan, et al (2000), the effects of poverty among other things include prostitution, exposure to risks like corruption, bribery, street life, increased unemployment, malnutrition, low level of education, low income per capita, human degradation, living in over-crowded home with poor ventilation, migration and high infant mortality. On high mortality rate, Stewart (1995) portends that the poverty trends, which have been mixed with infant and child mortality rates often continues to increase with a fall in educational enrolment. Even the maternal mortality rate has worsened.
On the strategies employed by adult education in the reduction of poverty in Enugu State, the result of the findings revealed that it was only the creation of interpersonal communication between members of the communities that is done to a great extent. Encouragement of personal hygiene and environmental sanitation, eradication of illiteracy and creation of awareness through enlightenment campaign and training were done just to an extent. It is poor and not encouraging. If poverty should be reduced, these strategies should be intensified. Other strategies should be seriously encouraged. They include: provision of vocational schools, provision of extension education to rural farmers, promotion of small-scale enterprise, promotion of adults’ participation in decision making process in the community, provision of in-service training for adults to up-grade their deficiencies, promotion of the family planning units to cater for birth control, and encouragement of adult farmers to form co-operative societies. On provision of vocational schools, Udo (1999) stressed that adult education reduces poverty through the provision of vocational schools where adults and others go to improve their skills, learn crafts and crafts and so on, so as to make themselves more productive in the society. On the provision of extension education, Uzoka and Okafor (2002) noted that Home Economics Education encourages the expansion of knowledge and development of skills in the areas of food and nutrition, home management, clothing and textile, consumer education, interior decoration and family living. Ugwu (2002) affirmed that education is a pivot that will effectively rotate the fulcrum of poverty reduction programme. She also noted that if poverty must be erased in this nation, certificate consciousness should not be the in-thing, but skill acquisition should be given much priority. Education will help to keep the citizens informed. Educating for poverty reduction will help to facilitate the growth of existing micro-business. Education will also help to empower the rural women and other disadvantaged groups through credit schemes, job creation, illiteracy campaign, etc. Graduates will also learn skills for self-employment.
The test of hypothesis revealed that there was no significant difference in the mean ratings of the male and female adult education administrators in Enugu State on the adult education strategies employed in the reduction of poverty in the state. The result of the findings showed that both sexes agreed that the major strategy employed in the reduction of poverty was only the creation of interpersonal communication between members of the communities. Encouragement of personal hygiene and environmental sanitation, eradication of illiteracy and creation of awareness through enlightenment campaign and training were done just to an extent.

Recommendations:
The following recommendations were proffered:
 The state agency for mass literacy, adult and non-formal education should establish more Adult literacy centres in all the communities in the state. As such, there should be a more positive change in the strategy to generate enthusiasm for literacy.
 Both state and federal governments should be willing to implement fully the stipulations of the National Policy on Education, giving adequate attention to the implementation of vocational and technological education.
 Local, state and federal governments should maintain an intensive enlightenment campaign at the various levels so as to inform people of the need to participate in Adult education and other skills acquisition programmes.
 Government should incorporate Extension education into the Adult education programmes. As such, the extension service delivery should be made more efficient and effective to reach people at the grassroots in order to improve their awareness of innovation in agriculture. Effective methods of extension service delivery can be the use of bulletins, personal visits, posters, handbills, radio and television.
 Government and Non-Governmental Organizations should help the rural people to form co-operative societies so as to enable them pull their resources together for small and medium-scale enterprises.

Conclusion:
Poverty reduction programme has really gone a long way, yet it still requires improvement in many areas. It is a legend that an educated nation does not mean a developed nation, yet the truth remains that no nation can develop fully and effectively without the education of the citizenry. As such, education will certainly increase the pace at which poverty reduction programme will achieve its objectives. There is evidence that the earnings of the self-employed are higher for the educated than for the uneducated. This means that any effective anti-poverty strategy should incorporate the enhancement of education and skills among poor households, and this can only be achieved effectively through Adult education programme.




References:

Agwaga, U.N.V. (2002). Mathematics education and poverty alleviation in Nigeria. JOWICE. Journal of Women in Colleges of Education. 6; 18 – 27.

Duke, C. (2004). Adult education and poverty reduction: A global priority. Adult Education and Development. Journal of Institute for International Cooperation of the German Adult Education Association. (63), 15 – 77.

Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004). National Policy on Education. Lagos: NERDC.

Gilbert, A. & Gugler, J. (1992). Cities, poverty and development: Urbanization in the Third World. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Mackinnon, J. & Reinikka, R. (2000). Lessons from Uganda on strategies to fight poverty. Policy Research Working Paper. Washington DC: World Bank; (2440).

Ndu, G.U. (2002). Poverty alleviation programme in Nigeria: challenges to implementation. JOWICE. Journal of Women in Colleges of Education. 6; 186 – 192.
Olaitan, S.O. (1996). Vocational and Technical Education in Nigeria: Issues and Analysis. Onitsha: Noble Graphic Press.

Olaitan, S.O., Ali, A., Onyemaechi, G.A. & Nwachukwu, C. (2000). Poverty Alleviation Initiatives in Nigeria. Lagos: Nigerian Education Research Association Publication.
Preece, J. (2004). Adult education and poverty reduction: a global priority. Papers presented at Botswana Conference, University of Botswana. Pp. 407.

Stewart, F. (1995). Adjustment and Poverty: Options and Choices. London: Routledge.

Udo, R. O. (1999). The role of Adult education in poverty alleviation in Ohafia Local Government Area of Abia State. Unpublished B. Ed. Thesis. Department of Adult Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.

Ugwu, B.N. (2002). An appraisal of the current poverty alleviation programme: implication for education. JOWICE. Journal of Women in Colleges of Education. 6; 285 – 289.

UNDP (1994). Human Development Report. New York: Oxford Press.
UNESCO (1987). Basic education, population and development. Status and Trends.



































Uzoka, F.A. & Okafor, P.O. (2002). Home Economics skills and poverty alleviation in rural areas in Nigeria. JOWICE. Journal of Women in Colleges of Education. 6; 290 – 295.

WOMEN EDUCATION AND THE SOCIO–CULTURAL CHALLENGES IN NSUKKA ZONE OF ENUGU STATE

BY

OREH, CATHERINE I.;

OBETTA, K. CHUKWUEMEKA,

UKWUABA, LORETTA CHIKA,

&

OKENWA, GERTRUDE NKECHI


Abstract
Education is a veritable instrument for bringing about positive changes in the pattern of life of the people. Based on this, the study assessed the socio-cultural factors that militate against women education in Nsukka Zone of Enugu State. Three research questions were formulated to guide the study. The population for the study was 300 child-bearing mothers drawn from the Adult education centres in the seven (7) local government councils that make up the zone. Questionnaire was used as the major instrument for data collection. It was face validated by three experts; two in Educational Research Method in the Department of Science Education, and one in Adult Education Department, both from University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The reliability of the instrument was tested using Cronbach Alpha estimate, and a co-efficient of .82 was obtained before the final administration of the instrument on the respondents. The collected data were analyzed by computing and comparing the mean scores. The study revealed that the major social factors that militate against women education include nursing of babies, community work, poverty, and early marriage. In the case of domestic chores in the family, processing and cooking of food, attending to sick children, husbands and relatives, compound cleaning, fetching of firewood and water, processing of farm produce, weaving and sewing of clothes and washing of clothes ranked high. In religious and cultural beliefs of people as factors in women education, the belief that women’s education ends in kitchen, education makes women to be wild, women are forbidden from moving about at night, educated women lose chances of getting married, and the belief that husbands do not allow their wives to attend classes were discovered to have influence on women education in Nsukka Zone of Enugu State. The study recommended that the state agency for mass literacy, adult and non-formal education should embark on a realistic and holistic campaign for women education. Local governments should help the rural women to form both co-operative societies and community-based organizations.



Education has been perceived as the key to the golden door of success and should be pursued equally by both men and women as an essential development process. It is a lifelong process, which starts from birth, through childhood and continues to adulthood and old age. Obetta (2008) called this type of education “lifelong education”, which was considered as all purposeful learning activity undertaken throughout life, with the aim of improving knowledge, skills and competencies within personal, civic, social and/or employment-related perspective. Education is therefore a veritable instrument for bringing about positive changes in the pattern of the life of people. Odumegwu (2005) maintained that education is the building block for social and economic reconstruction. Therefore, the most effective means of breaking away from the vicious cycle of underdevelopment, poverty, ignorance, disease, chronic economic dependency and political instability is through a qualitative education system. To this end, Ukwuaba (2008) asserted that the right to learn is an indispensable tool for the survival of humanity. According to her, the right to learn is:
• The right to read and write;
• The right to question and analyse;
• The right to imagine and create;
• The right to read one’s own world and to write history;
• The right to have access to educational resources, and
• The right to develop individual and collective skills.
It then means that people require literacy skills for their political, economic, social and moral development. Ahmed (1992) stressed that the world is undergoing changes in arts, science and technology, and that the extent to which people perceive and actually are sensitized to those changes depends on a number of variables but the variable with the greatest catalytic influence on our knowledge, about ourselves and our world is literacy. Literacy education contributes to the liberation of man and to his full development. Therefore, World Bank (1993) asserted that education creates a condition for the acquisition of a critical consciousness of the contribution of society in which man lives. Oxaal (1997) asserted that those with no education tend to have earnings’ profiles, which remain pretty flat throughout their lives. These patterns indicate not just that education make people more productive but also that it enhances the ability to learn-by-doing, causing productivity, and thus earnings to increase at a faster rate than those with less education. So, achieving literacy education is the first step towards enabling women to take control over their own lives, participate as equals in society and free themselves from economic and patriarchal exploitation (Phiri, 1992). The level of education acquired by a mother has a positive effect, not only on her children’s development but also on the health, education, mortality rate, pre-school cognitive ability, etc. In the same vein, an effective and sustainable process of women empowerment must necessarily include the expansion of women’s access to educational opportunities, skill acquisition and positions of authority (Enemuo, 2001).
Empowering women with education gives them a sense of belonging in the society. Unfortunately, African women do not have equal access to education as men (Eboh, 2002). It has been observed that the average Nigerian woman is surrounded by serious socio-cultural and economic circumstances, which do not only reduce her motivation to participate in education programme but also, foster the development of negative attitudes towards innovation and changes. One of the major socio-cultural factors centred on marginalization. Eboh (2002) cited that man’s intolerance of highly enterprising women stems from psychological insecurity given that female resourcefulness and success stories challenge and threaten the basis of his assumed authority. Another socio-cultural challenge is the traditional attitudes coupled with disenchantment with learning, and with hours for resumption and closing of classes. These traditional attitudes such as non-movement of women at night as a result of occult practices also hinder effective participation of women in Adult education programmes.

Statement of the Problem:
Adult education programme has gone on in Nsukka Zone of Enugu State for many decades now. Nationwide Adult education programme was implemented by means of well-organized machinery with the aim of eradicating illiteracy entirely. The socially, culturally, politically and economically backward classes, tribes and female section of the population were considered priority target groups. However, in spite of all the concerted efforts, the realization or achievement of women education in the zone remains a dream. The problems specific to the living conditions of the rural women help to complicate the matter. The resultant effects include irregular attendance and high rate of drop-out in Adult education programme.
Based on this premise, the researchers tend to look at the socio-cultural background of Nsukka women as the major challenge towards their active participation in Adult education programme. This problem was heightened by the fact that there was no document in any of the six (6) local government councils within the zone to show that any assessment has been done on the socio-cultural factors that militate against women education. Therefore, the problem of the study arises as a question: In what ways do the socio-cultural challenges influence women education in Nsukka Zone of Enugu State?

Purpose of the Study:
The objectives of the study are:
1. To ascertain the ways in which social factors militate against women education.
2. To identify the ways in which domestic chores in the family militate against women education.
3. To identify the ways in which religious and cultural beliefs of the Nsukka people militate against women education.

Research Questions:
The following questions were formulated to guide the study:
1. In what ways do social factors militate against women education in Nsukka Zone?
2. In what ways do domestic chores in the family militate against women education in Nsukka Zone?
3. In what ways do religious and cultural beliefs militate against women education in Nsukka Zone?

Methodology:
Survey research design was used for the study. The design was appropriate as the researchers were interested in the assessment of the socio-cultural factors that challenge the education of women in Nsukka Zone. The population for the study is 473 respondents which are made up of child-bearing mothers that attend Adult education programme in the seven (7) local government area that constitute the zone. The local government councils are: Igbo-Etiti, Igbo-Eze North, Igbo-Eze South, Isi-Uzo, Nsukka, Udenu and Uzo-Uwani Local Government Areas. Simple random sampling technique was employed to select 350 child-bearing mothers. This represents 73.7 per cent of the entire population. The instrument used for data collection was the structured questionnaire, which was designed and developed by the researchers. The instrument was face validated by three (3) experts; two in Educational Research Method in the Department of Science Education, and one in Adult Education Department, both from University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Cronbach Alpha reliability estimate was used to test for the internal consistency of the instrument, which was administered to 11 child-bearing mothers in Umulumgbe Community in Udi Local Government Area of Enugu State. A co-efficient reliability of .82 was obtained. The questionnaire was administered to the respondents personally by the researchers. Out of the 350 distributed questionnaire, only 300 of them were duly filled and returned. This gave 85.7 per cent as the Questionnaire return rate. The collected data were analyzed using weighted mean. The item with a mean rating of 250 and above was regarded as accepted while any item with the mean rating below 2.50 was regarded as rejected.

Results:
Research Question 1: In what ways do social factors militate against women education in Nsukka Zone?



Table 1: Social Factors that Challenge Women Education

S/No.
Social Factors Mean Score
Decision
1. Women do not attend classes when they are pregnant 1.89 Disagree
2. Nursing of babies do not allow mothers to attend adult education classes 4.00 Agree
3. Community work do not allow women to attend classes 3.70 Agree
4. Poverty prevents many women from participating in adult education classes 3.41 Agree
5. Early marriage affects women education 2.86 Agree
Grand Mean 3.17 Agree


Table 1 above shows the various social factors that affect the participation of women in Adult education classes in Nsukka Zone. The data revealed that non-attendance of women to classes when pregnant had a mean score of 1.89, while nursing of babies as a factor scored a mean of 4.00. Others are: non-attendance due to community work (3.70), poverty as a factor (3.41), and early marriage factor (2.86).
Therefore, from the above analysis, it can be seen that the major social factors that challenge women education are nursing of babies, community work, poverty and early marriage.
Research Question 2: In what ways do domestic chores in the family militate against women education in Nsukka Zone?



Table 2: Domestic Chores in the Family that Affect Women Education

S/No.
Domestic Chores Mean Score
Decision
1. Attending to a sick child 3.77 Agree
2. Attending to sick husband and relatives 3.39 Agree
3. Compound cleaning 3.27 Agree
4. Processing and cooking of food 4.00 Agree
5. Fetching of firewood and water 3.25 Agree
6. Processing of agricultural produce 3.00 Agree
7. Weaving/sewing of clothes 2.77 Agree
8. Washing of clothes 2.73 Agree
Grand Mean 3.27 Agree


08030870460Table 2 above shows the various domestic chores that affect women education in Nsukka Zone. The data showed that the attendance to sick children had a mean score of 3.77. Others are: attendance to sick husband and relatives (3.39), house and compound cleaning (3.27), processing and cooking of food (4.00), fetching of firewood and water (3.25), processing of agricultural produce (3.00), weaving and sewing of clothes (2.77), and washing of clothes (2.73).
From the analysis on Table 2 above, it can be deducted that all the domestic chores in the family affect women education.
Research Question 3: In what ways do religious and cultural beliefs militate against women education in Nsukka Zone?



Table 3: Religious and Cultural Beliefs that Affect Women Education

S/No
Religious and cultural beliefs Mean Score
Decision
1. People believe that women’s education ends in the kitchen. 4.00 Agree
2. People believe that education makes women to be wild. 3.75 Agree
3. People believe that educated women lose the chances of getting married. 3.00 Agree
4. People believe that educated women do not make good housewives. 1.87 Disagree
5. Husbands do not allow their wives to attend classes. 2.66 Agree
6. Women are forbidden from moving about at night due to occult practices. 3.53 Agree
7. Women do not participate in activities with men who are not their relatives. 1.93 Disagree
8. Women are not supposed to be more educated than their husbands. 2.00 Disagree
Grand Mean 2.84 Agree


Table 3 above reveals the various religious and cultural beliefs of Nsukka people that affect women education in the zone. The data indicate that the respondents who accepted that women education ends in the kitchen scored a mean of 4.00, while the belief that education makes women to be wild had 3.75 as the mean score. Others are: the belief that educated women lose the chances of getting married (3.00), belief that educated women do not make good housewives (1.87), belief that husbands do not allow their wives to attend classes (2.66), and belief that women are forbidden from moving about at night (3.53). While the belief that women do not participate in activities with men who are not their relatives had a mean score of 1.93, the belief that women suppose not to be more educated than their husbands had 2.00 as the mean score.
Therefore, from the analysis on Table 3 above, it be deduced that the major religious and cultural beliefs that affect women education include the belief: that women’s education ends in the kitchen; that education makes women to be wild, that women are forbidden from moving about at night due to occult practices, that educated women do not make good housewives, and that husbands do not allow their wives to attend classes.

Discussion:
The findings of the study revealed that the major social factors that militate against women education in Nsukka Zone are that nursing of babies, community work, poverty and early marriage. Women work for longer hours than their husbands, averaging over twice as much time on production, supply and distribution tasks, including food processing. Rural women have the hardest of lives as they get up first, work hardest, eat less and go to sleep late. Enweonwu (1999) agreed that nursing of babies contribute to the social barrier against women education. It makes the nursing mothers not to be constant in the adult education classes. Many may drop in the process. The Women’s Committee of International Conference on Africa of 1983 observed on their work on women that in society, women are cleaners of rural roads, the regular visitors to the market and water collectors. On domestic chores in the family, the findings showed that processing and cooking of food, attending to sick children, husbands and relatives, compound cleaning, fetching of firewood and water, processing of farm produce, weaving and sewing of clothes, and washing of clothes are all important factors that militate against women education. Ijere (1992) confirmed that women form the backbone of rural development. They are found in agriculture and outside it. In the household, they hold an unassailable preeminence tending to the children and even their husbands. Also, the Second Decade set by the General Assembly of the United Nations in 1975 recognized that women produce and process most of the world’s food. Women spend time on the household tasks of cooking, cleaning, washing and child-care. So, many women are really eager to be educated but family responsibilities hinder their full and effective participation in adult education programmes. The findings further disclosed that the greatest religious and cultural belief that affect women education are the people’s belief that women’s education ends in the kitchen, belief that education makes women to be wild, belief that women should not be allowed to move about at night, belief that educated women lose chances of getting married, and the belief that husbands do not allow their wives to attend classes. On this, Azikiwe (1992) noted that female illiteracy out-number male illiteracy in all age groups because of traditional mentality prevailing, particularly in rural areas. Also, Egonu (1987) asserts that traditional attitudes coupled with disenchantment with learning and with the hours for resumption and closing of classes hinder participation of women in Adult education programmes. According to her, one of the traditional attitudes includes non-movement of women at night as a result of occult practices. According to Chukwuma (2001), there is belief that an educated woman would be more selective in the choice of a husband, and might in the event of marriage, assume control of the home.

Recommendations:
Based on the findings, the researchers made the following recommendations:
 The State Agency for Mass Literacy, Adult and Non-Formal Education should embark on a realistic and holistic campaign for women education
 Both local and state governments should adopt the “girl-child education programme” initiated by the National Commission for Mass Education (NMEC), Abuja. This will go a long to reducing the rate of early marriage.
 All the three tiers of government should abrogate all the laws, rules and regulations, which discriminate against women. The police and the judiciary should be empowered to protect the freedom of women. The women themselves should free themselves from the cultural infiltration of the competing Arabic and western cultures, which have acted jointly and adversely to dislodge women from their pre-colonial position of preeminence to their present position of “invisibility and subordination”. The government should also wage war on these restrictive customs and laws against women liberation. On this, the Federal Government of Nigeria should immediately translate into domestic legislation, all the legal obligations in the treaties, conventions and resolutions of the United Nations as well as the Regional resolutions, which have been ratified by the government. These include the Convention on the Political Rights of women, and the Convention on the Total Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against Women.
 Local governments should as a matter of urgency, help the rural women to form cooperative societies and community-based organizations. This will enable them to pull their resources together for their well being, and for them to acquire education, socio-cultural, economic and political empowerment.
 Adult education administrators should organize seminars and symposia periodically to educate the rural women on the fundamental human rights. Through this, the notion of men superiority would be disabused.





References:

Ahmed, A.I. (1992). Mass literacy education policy and delivery in Nigeria. Education Today. Journal of the Federal Ministry of Education and Youth Development. 5 (4), September.

Azikiwe, U. (1992). Women education and empowerment. Nsukka: Fulludan Publication Company.

Chukwuma, C.N. (2001). Factors militating against effective participation of women in adult education programme in Isi-Uzo Local Government Area of Enugu State. Unpublished B. Ed. Thesis. Department of Adult Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.

Eboh, M.P. (2002). Philosophy, women and responsible leadership in Africa. Paper presented at the Conference of Philosophy and Responsible Leadership in Africa held at Bigard Memorial Seminary, Enugu, 18th – 21st November.

Egonu, D.U. (1987). The problems of drop-outs in adult basic education programmes in

Nigeria. In F.C. Okafor, E. Okeem, & J.I. Mereni (eds.), Foundations of Adult Education. Obosi: Pacific Correspondence College and Publishers.

Enemuo, F.C. (2001). Political participation and the economic empowerment of Nigerian women: imperative and prospects. In C.I. Obi (ed.), Women’s Political Participation through Economic Empowerment. Lagos: O.V.C. (Nig.) ltd.

Enweonwu, N.R. (1999). The socio-cultural problems militating against the education of rural women in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu State. Unpublished B. Ed. Thesis. Department of Adult Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.

Ijere, M.O. (1992). Leading Issues in Rural Development. Enugu: ACENA Publishers.

Obetta, K. C. (2008). Assessment of the lifelong education implementation in Enugu State. Education in the Information Age: Global challenges and enhancement Strategies. Proceedings of First International Conference of the Faculty of Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. 248 – 253.

Odumegwu, F.B.O. (2005). Meeting the challenges of human capital development: The case for reform in our educational policies and systems. Text of the 34thConvocation Address at University of Nigeria, Nsukka; 31st March.

Oxaal, Z. (1997). Education and poverty: A gender analysis. Bridge Report. Brighton; IDS. June, 35 – 37.

Phiri, S. (1992). Women and literacy. Adult Education and Development. Journal of the Institute for International Cooperation of the German Adult Education Association. (38), 217 – 223.

Ukwuaba, L.C. (2008). Access to equal education: A strategy for enhancing women participation in communit development. Education in the Information Age: Global challenges and enhancement Strategies. Proceedings of First International Conference of the Faculty of Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka; 213 – 218.

World Bank (1993). Paradigm Postponed: Gender and Economic Adjustment in Sub-Saharan Africa. Washington DC: AFTHR Technical Note. (13), 65 – 74.

















ACQUISATION AND APPLICATION OF SPORT SKILLS TO ENHANCE PERFORMANCE

BY

MAKASI, PETER AMECHI
LECTURER HEALTH AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, NWAFOR ORIZU COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, NSUGBE


Abstract
This paper addressed the issue of sport skill in relation to its acquisition and application even out of school. The school physical education programmes have the potentials to equip the student with life long skills. To making the issues raised in the paper clearer basic concepts such as sports, skill and motor skill were reviewed and made clearer. Besides, sport skill acquisition in relation to the three general approaches that help foster skill learning were identified. Moreover, the factors affecting skill and sport-skill acquisition and application coupled with the theories behind the learning of new skill were addressed in the paper. Finally, the paper was concluded with the singular variable that fosters skill acquisition and information processing memory and memorization. To actually succeed in achieving the desired levels of sport skill acquisition some basic recommendations were made.


Education and training programmes are highly built on the assumption that human beings have the capability to transfer what they have learned in one situation to another (Lander, 2001). This assumption is a legitimate one. Acquisition of skill and knowledge for their own sake can hardly justify the vast expenditure involved in education. To have any significance, learned behavior must be adaptable or applied to some long term process other than the learning situation itself (Handford, Davids, Bennett & Button 1997).
Transfer of training, whether on a large scale and general basis as from school to after school life, or whether in relation to very specific knowledge and skills is of great concern to educators. The principles governing transfer in learning are of direct concern to physical educators especially in relation to the acquisition of motor skills. The school physical education programmes have the potentials to equip the student with life long skills such as sports skills which will enable them to perform some of the expected roles in sports and in the society, (Cassidy, Jones & Pratrac 2004). Life skills such as those of sport are abilities for adaptive and positive behavior that enable individuals to deal effectively with the demands and challenges of everyday life (Weeks & Kordus, 1998).

The Concept of Sport and Skill
According to Wulf, Gartner & Schwarz (2002) sports is a highly ambiguous term having many different meanings. Some authorities refer to sports when they are speaking of athletic competition while others refer to sports when they are discussing the organization and financial status of a team. Launder (2001) stated that sports should be considered on different planes of discourse in order to understand its nature. Sports for Erickson, Krampe,
& Romer (1993) maintained that sports can be seen as a competitive game occurrence, social institution and a social situation.
Skill on the other hand may be defined as the ability to perform effectively and efficiently, a combination of specific movements (Erickson, Krampe & Tesch Romer, 1993). In the words of Bartlet (1997); a skill is the combined ability and knowledge which allow you to complete a task to a high standard. Skills are learnt, permanent changes in behavior aimed at achieving a goal. Learning of the skill is demonstrated by changes in the consistency of performance, making it more efficient and successful. As with abilities, skills can be perceptual, motor or psychomotor or a combination.
Motor skill may be termed a reasonably complex motor performance depending on the nature of the task and the status of the performer (Cassidy, Jones & Pratrac, 2004). Each motor activity requires specific skills and regardless of other traits a performer might possess, he will not be an effective player until he learns the skills which are specific to his game or sport. In every athletic ability and sport, there is a set of basic skills. There are also refinements and variations of these basic skills which spell the difference between mediocrity and excellence. According to Thelen (1995), skills demands vary from sport to sport. Even within the confines of the same sport, the skill level of a novice is quite different from that of a champion. Also skill demands of equally rated players of the same team may depend on the role each is expected to play in the team, for example, the goalkeeper and striker in football the setter and the spiker in volleyball, the guard and the center in basketball.
In team sport apart from specific individual skills, there are team skills. Team skills could be viewed in the words of Zetou, Tzezis, Vemadakis & Kloumourtzoglou (2002) as reasonably complex movements which involve how each players should function in the execution of his skills in relation to the other members of his team. Hence we hear of the team defence, team attack, team strategy and team tactics. In a game for instance in volleyball, the effectiveness of the team is directly related to the coordination of the abilities and responsibilities of its members successful team work in volleyball revolves round a pass-set-spike pattern. Hence no outstanding spiking occurs without precision setting. The set-up man too cannot be expected to do an accurate setting unless he receives a good pass from his team mates on the first-touch-pass.
Good techniques will ensure an economy of effort, graceful and purposeful movement and a dependable output (performance) during the execution of the skills. Good and correct technique will also minimize the incidence of injury among players (Bartlet 1997).

Sport Skill Acquisition
Research evidence on acquisition of skill in sport has been reported in the developing and developed countries of the world. Bartest (1997) explains that irrespective of any theoretical understanding, there are three general approaches that may be identified in the study of skill learning;
i. The traditional approach that emphasizes topical research areas with the theoretical foundations,
ii. The human performance approach that emphasizes the process of information and the role of feedback
iii. The perceptual approach which emphasizes the stimulus paradigm.
However, according to Wulf, McConnel, Garttier and Schwarz (2002), there is no generally accepted model of skill learning. The worry still remains at this point, which is how best can we teach strategy and sport skill effectively? This was attempted by Ota and Wikers (1999) when they pointed out that theory, theorist and psychologist have used motor learning to find answers to problems concerning aggregate skill performance. Another authority who attempted solving the problem of how best to teach sports skill was Adams who in 1971 propounded the closed-loop theory. Adams (1971) explained that feed back reduces the amount of error in response and becomes input for correcting the error on the next response.
However, Glazier, Davids and Bartlett (2002) approach to skill acquisition is more practicable, which posits that learning occur through insights that the learner perceives as a pattern or configuration. Specifically, in the views of Glazier, Davids, & Bartlett (2002), learning a skill involves learner reaction to a total situation and not isolated stimuli. Frost (1986) and Handford, Davids, Bennett and Button (1997) divided skill acquisition into three stages of learning. There is the early, when the learner has no knowledge of the skill required. At this stage Handford (1977), suggests demonstration for teaching the skill. The second stage involves learning the vocabulary when the learner has the ‘feel’ of the game. Feedback can be sought through verbal instruction. Then comes the third and final stage in form of generalization stage. Here the learner performs the skill under varied conditions. Other contributors to the issue of skill acquisition was Weeks and kordus (1998). They observed that goal setting is the solution. Here, the learner has to have a firm idea about the movement involved and the desired outcome before the skill being learned gets improved. This is observable through feedback received from the learner’s response.
Amusa (1986) reports that acquisition of motor skills involves a number of inter-related processes, some of which are measurable while others are not. Motor skill acquisition involves selecting and soothing movements and sub-movements into understandable sequences. In addition Frost (1986) puts it that improvement in motor skills seems specific to each task with relatively little transfer occurring from task to task. Frost (1986) went further to observe that the ability to learn a motor skill is highly specific in the individual skills and that no general motor educability has been identified in the few previous studies in sport skill acquisition. However, familiarity with particular skill learning can be a factor that influences performance in learning sports.
Di-Vesta & Gray (1972) also stressed that dynamic theory is a variable frame work for modeling athletic performance. The author is of the perspective that dynamic theory emphasizes the process of coordination and control in human movement. Bart let (1997) perspectives on reduced complexity of the motor system indicates that the systems dynamics are usually highly ordered and stable before consistent movement pattern for specific tasks are developed. To buttress the perspective, Bart let (1997) on stability variability paradox in skill acquisition explains that skilled athletes are capable of persistence and change in motor output during sport performance. In their own contributions Glazier, Davids and Barlett (2002) commented on performance oriented sports that researchers in the field seldom make reference to the motor control theory.
Besides, relevant research on sport skill acquisition and retention in sport has been carried out through verbal application of video feedback and with various conclusions reached. (Thelen, 1995). Several authors have carried out research on repetition effect of skill acquisition in learning (Di-Vesta & Gray1972, Zetou, Tzetzis, Venadaks & Kleoumourtzogiou (2002). In the various studies, repetition seems to lead to an improved performance in skill acquisition. Turvey, (1990) study on effects of repetition on learning of prose suggested that the number of prose suggested that the number of times a lecture is presented is positively related to the overall amount of information a learner will recall. He further stated that quantitatively repeating allows the reader to adjust as well as focus on different aspects of lecturers during each successive presentation.
In education, repetition without instructional materials can lead to boredom. Skills are therefore not easily learned when learners are not involved (Glazier 2000). Motivation is essential if learnt skills is to be exhibited at subsequent times. Repetition in education is one of the principles used during the teaching and learning process, whether instructional materials and repetition will have positive effects or otherwise on learners is a subject of debate. The view that information presented to learners in form of visual, verbal, audio or audio/visual is reported before skills are acquired is in conclusive. (Weeks & Kordus, 1998). However, repetitions are made to correct an error or used as reinforcement of what has been learned. Repetition of materials serves as a stimulus that allow for retention through practice.

Factors Affecting Skill and Sports Skill Acquisition and Application
The response time and skill acquisition and application according to Launder (2001) depends largely to a great extent on response (or reaction) time. The reaction time is a person’s ability to take in and process information to make a decision and then put this into play or action (Launder 2001). Measurement of response time is achieved by timing the space between the first presentation of the stimulus (e.g. an unexpected shot in football) to the end of your reaction movement (e.g. the goalkeeper diving to save it) (Handford, 1997).
According to Bartest (1997), response time is affected by the following;
1. Hicks law
2. Age
3. Presentation of stimulus in rapid succession.
4. Sex
5. Stimulus – response compatibility
6. Experience
7. Stimulus intensity
8. Anticipation.
A further elaboration no matter how brief on the outlined factors will help in small measures to drive the points and facts clearer.
Hicks Law: This law is of the opinion that the time to make a decision increases with the more choices which are available as shown in the graph below;









Age: Reaction time speeds up as we develop through childhood into adulthood to an optimal point where it then deteriorates again.
Presentation of stimuli in rapid success: This is also sometimes referred to as the psychological refractory period. It is a delay in response to a second stimuli which comes in close succession to the last. For example, when playing hockey, a dummy or fake movement works to put the defenders off as they initiate a response to this dummy which they must then stop and correct with a response for the attackers actual movement.
Sex: Males tend to have a faster response time than females. This however deteriorates more rapidly in old age.
Stimulus – Response compatibility: If the stimulus is expected, then the reaction is quicker than if it is unexpected. For example, a goalkeeper’s reaction to a penalty will be faster than their reaction to the unexpected shot from outside the box.
Experience: The ability to use past experiences to select the correct reaction speeds up the response and application time.
Stimulus Intensity: The stronger the stimulus is, the faster the reaction will be. This is because it is easier to focus the selective attention on strong stimuli. With weaker stimuli, more irrelevant information is taken in.
Anticipation: If an event is anticipated then often the movements required for the reaction are prepared and began before the stimulus occurs. This is known as spatial anticipation. The best example of this is a false start by a sprinter they were anticipating the fun and the motor programme began too early.


Theories behind the Learning of New Skill
In order to produce a successful response to a stimuli or problem, the athlete must find a solution. If a solution works and the problem is resolved, they will be rewarded at least verbally and are likely to repeat the behavior. This scenario involving learning new skills has been examined by many psychologists who have put forward the following theories.
i. Classical conditioning
ii. Operant conditioning
iii. Trial and error learning
iv. Thorndike’s law
v. Problem solving
vi. Feedback.
vii. The schema theory.

Classical Conditioning: Russian physiologist Pavlov came up with this theory having performed an experiment using dogs. A bell was rung at dinner times, just before their food was brought out. Before long, the dogs started associating the bell with food and would start salivating at the sound of the bell, before food was even presented.
It can be difficult to find examples of this within the sporting world. Something like a referee blowing the whistle signifying that play should stop is a good example. Here the athlete know what to do without having to think about it.
Operant Conditioning: Skinners theory of operant conditioning involves the correct response to a situation or task being rewarded. This reinforces the correct response. This behavior is shaped by the coach and the player need not understand why they are performing like this, just that they will be rewarded if they do it correctly.
Examples in sport are situations such as football shooting practice. The coach may direct the players to strike the ball into the right of the goal. If this done, they are rewarded. The area is then reduced to the top half of the eight side, and then maybe the top eighty hand corner only. Rewarding this behavior strengthens the link.
Trial and error learning: We have all heard of finding solution by trial and error. It involves testing various methods of achieving a goal until you find one that works. This can be a slow process. A sporting example is changing your grip in racket sports.
Thorndike’s Law: This can be subdivided into three major classes;
a. Law of exercise: rehearsing (or exercising) the stimulus-response (SR) connection helps strengthen them and reinforce the correct skill.
b. Law of effect: if the skill is followed by a pleasant reaction, then the SR bond is further strengthened. If the following reaction OD negative then the SR bond is weakened.
c. Law of readiness: The athlete must be both mentally and physically capable of performing the sill efficiently.
Problem Solving: This theory centers on the intelligence of the performers. The athletes need to see the whole situation and find a way to respond effectively.
Feedback: Feedback is beneficial in improving performance and is used either during or after the event. Feedback can be categorized into two;
a. Intrinsic feedback: This comes from within the athlete during the performance. The feeling that a tennis shot was good or that a distance runner has more left to offer are examples of intrinsic feedback.
b. Extrinsic feedback: This occurs after the performance from someone other than the athlete, usually a coach or family friends. It is sometimes also called augmented feedback. Extrinsic feedback can further be subdivided into – knowledge of results (KRE). Feedback on the consequences of a performances e.g. the score/winning/loosing. Feedback can be motivating, reinforcing and informational. Both success and failure can motivate the athlete to do even better or avoid further failure. It can reinforce the correct skill as in Thorndike’s law and inform the athlete of faults in their performance or particularly well executed skills.
The Schema Theory: The term schema means all of the information needed to make a movement decision. It is stored in the brain as a long term memory (Ota & Vikers, 1999). The schema theory challenges the open and closed loop theories.
The open-loop theory states that decisions are made in the brain. All the information for one movement is sent in a single message. The message is recovered by the muscles which perform the movements. Feedback may or not be available but it does not control the action. This theory accounts well for fast continuous movements. Example could be a golf wing, although it does not work so well for slower movements which may involve reactions and repositioning such as a gymnast on the balance beam (Blazier, Davids & Barlett, 2002).
The closed loop theory on the other hand explains slow movements well but not fast movements. Here decisions are made in the brain. Not all of the information is sent together. Information is received by the muscles to initiate the movement (Zetou, Tzetzis, Vemadakis & Kloumourtzaglou, 2002).
The schema theory according to Ota & Vikers (1999) was developed by Schmidt in 1977 who suggested that motor programmes can be clustered and are changeable to respond to the situation. He also stated that the larger the motor programme that is achieved through practice, the easier it can be adapted to new situations.
In the words of Cassidy, Jones & Pratrac (2004), schema can further be broken down into two;
a. Recall schema
b. Recognition schema.
Recall Schema: Occurs before a movement is initiated and includes the following which the performer must know to form a schema initial conditions which include;
i. Where is the goal, opposition, team mates.
ii. What is the environment like? Grass, Astroturf, wet or dry, windy.
iii. What condition am I in? fresh, tired, injured.
All these are backed up by response specifications such as – how fast do I need to go? Where do I pass the ball to?, how hard do I need to kick the ball? And finally which techniques will produce the best results?
Recognition Schema: In order to correct or alter a response the athlete needs to know:
i. Movement outcomes
ii. Knowledge of results (KR) – success or failure.
iii. Sensory consequence
iv. From knowledge of performance (KP); - how did it look (extrinsic feedback), how did it feel (Intrinsic feedback).
Conclusion
Without memory, information processing and skill acquisition is not possible (Thelen 1995). The memory is a complicated thing and the whole process of memorizing a skill or event is not yet known. (Amusa 1986).
The following according to Weeks & Kordus (1998) tries to explain the process of memorization as it is understood so far;
i. A stimulus triggers the senses. (Sight, sound, touch, smell and taste).
ii. The information received from the senses enters the short-term-sensory-store (STSS).
iii. It is stored here for a maximum of one second and is filtered down to relevant information.
iv. Irrelevant information is discarded.
v. The relevant information is passed to the short-term-memory. (STM).
vi. Information is stored here on a limited capacity for up to one minute.
vii. The information here is used to make decisions. These decisions are made more quickly if information from the long-term-memory is used to compare with the current information.
viii. Important information is moved onto the next stage.
ix. The long-term-memory (LTM) has a potentially endless capacity and can hold information for a long time. This is achieved by practicing skills or rehearsing information which strengthens the motor programme.
In all guidance is required in the process of transmitting information about a skill to the learner. The form of this guidance takes can be either visual verbal or manual. A combination of all these forms guidance is usually most successful.



References:
Adams, J.A (1971). A Close Loop Theory of Motor Learning. Journal of Motor Behaviour. 3(10) p. 111.
Amusa, L.O (1986). Acquisition of Sport and related physical Activities. Nigerian Journal of Applied Psychology. 3(5) p. 18
Bartlet, R.M (1997). Current Issues in the Mechanics of Athletic Activities, A position paper. Journal of Biomechanics. 6(11) p. 447.
Cassidy, L.P., Jones, R.A & Pratrac, P.C (2004). Understanding Sports Coaching, the Social, Cultural and Pedagogical foundations of Coaching practices Oxfordshire, Routledge.
Di-Vesta, F.J & Gray, G.S (1972). Listening and note taking. Journal of Educational Psychology. 63(8) p.8
Erickson, K.A Krampe, R.T, & Tesch Romer, C.B. (1993). The role of deliberate practice in the acquisition of expert performance. Psychological Review 100. 7(3) 363.
Frost, In Amusa, I.C (1986). Acquisition of sport and related physical activities. Nigerian Journal of Applied Psychology. 1(4) 58
Glazier, P.S., Davids, K.H & Barlett, R.M (2002). Interceptive actions in sports: Information and Movement. London, Taylor and Francis.
Handford, C.A, Davids, K.E, Bennett, S.O & Button, C.M (1997). Skill acquisition in sport: some applications of an evolving practice ecology. Journal of sport Science. 15(6) 621.
Launder, A.G. (2001). Play practice. The games approach to teaching and coaching sports. Boston. McGraw Hill.
Ota, D.C & Vikers, J.N (1999). The effects of variable practice on retention and transfer of two volleyball skills in male club-level athletes. International Journal of Volleyball Research 1(1) 18.
Thelen, E.C (1995). Motor Development; A new synthesis. American Psychologist. 50(2) 79
Weeks, D.L & Kordus, R.N (1998). Relative frequency of knowledge of performance and motor skill learning. Research quarterly for exercise and sport. 69(3) 224.
Wulf, G.N, McConnell, N.O, Gartner, M.C & Schwarz, P.B (2002). Enhancing the learning of sports skills through external focus feedback. Journal of Motor Behaviour. 34(2) 171.
Zetou, E.C., Tzetzis, G.L, Vemadakis, N.B., & Kloumourtzoglou, E.M (2002). Modeling in learning two Volleyball Skills. Perception and motor skill Journal. 94(3) 31.



















STRESS MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES AMONG STAFF OF THE UNIVERSITY OF PORT HARCOURT, RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA.

BY

DR. A. E. NWACHUKWU,
HEALTH EDUCATION UNIT,
P.H.E. DEPARTMENT,
DELTA STATE UNIVERSITY,
ABRAKA, DELTA STATE, NIGERIA.

AND

NWACHUKWU, AGNES U.
DELTA STATE UNIVERSITY SECONDARY SCHOOL,
ABRAKA, DELTA STATE, NIGERIA.


ABSTRACT
This study, entitled “Stress Management Strategies”, was conducted in the University of Port-Harcourt, Nigeria. The study was prompted by the frequent complaints of stressful conditions made by a cross-section of the University Community. Staff of the Faculty of Education were chosen for a pilot study. It involved 150 randomly selected male and female respondents. The research instrument was a self-structured 12-item questionnaire. Stress management practices investigated included – Alcohol intake; Smoking; Psychotherapy; Occupational Therapy; Musical Therapy; Rest and Recreation; among others. Findings revealed that while some of the subjects tried managing stress through alcoholism; psychotherapy; sharing emotional burdens with friends; and humane behaviour; others adopted other stress management options. It was recommended that individuals should apply the orthodox stress management strategies suggested by experts in that field.



“STRESS MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES”

According to Fawole (2005), Dr. Hans Selye who is regarded as the Father of STRESS-THEORY, defined stress as “the non-specific response of the body to any demand made upon it.” Udoh and Ajala (1986), on the other hand, described stress as any stimulus that interferes negatively with the normal biological and psychological balance of an organism. Palmore (2006) simply saw stress as the adverse reactions people exhibit in response to excessive pressure weighing on them.
Stress has both positive and negative dimensions. These are EUSTRESS and DISTRESS (Fawole, 2005). Eustress is the positive form of stress which challenges and virtually energises an individual towards seeing to the accomplishment of a task. Distress on the other hand, is the negative aspect of stress. It engenders very adverse reactions in an individual, on account of the overbearing magnitude of the task, or situation to which the person is exposed. It is this negative aspect of stress that forms the focus of this paper, because its proper management is essential for emotional balance.
Ayorinde (1983) and Udoh & Ajala (1986) identified a number of desirable and non-desirable stress-management strategies. While desirable stress-management techniques include seeking helpful counsel; working for achievement; setting realistic goals; developing wholesome habits like rest and recreation, and humane interpersonal relations; as well as accepting physical limitations; undesirable stress management options include over-eating; Alcoholism; smoking; drug intake and day-dreaming/mere wishful thinking.
The problem of this study, therefore, was principally two-dimensional; namely:
a) to find out the stress-management strategies most commonly adopted by the respondents;
b) to assess the desirability, or otherwise, of such identified stress-management options.

Review of Related Literature
Stress Factors
A number of factors, or variables in an individual’s life could trigger off the feelings of stress in him. In this regard, sources of stress include: poverty (economic stress); unemployment; job-loss; ill-health; love-mischance; broken home (occasioned by divorce, separation/estrangement of husband and wife); infertility in marriage; overwork; threat to job-security; and a host of other factors (Chiara & Scaife, 2006).

Manifestations of Stress
The clinical presentation of stress has psycho-somatic, (or physical and psychological) dimensions (Gump & Matthews, 1998). Symptoms of physical ill-health associated with stress include high blood pressure, recurring stomach troubles, like indigestion; incessant headaches, recurring back-ache, chest pain, and intermittent health problems of various descriptions; including chronic fatigue. On the other hand, the most common clinical presentations of psychological ill-health arising from stress are depression, anxiety and panic syndromes (Patmore, 2006).

Depression
Signs and symptoms of depression are varied. An individual suffering from stress-related depression is generally moody. That is, he remains in low-spirit for most of the day. He has personal feelings of worthlessness, and expresses little or no interest or pleasure in whatever may be happening around him. Loss of appetite could lead to significant loss in weight. Other symptoms of depression are loss of sleep (insomnia); psychomotor agitation: diminished ability for logical thinking and decision making; loss of concentration; and recurrent thoughts of death. At work, most depressed people exhibit un-cooperative relationship with their co-workers or neighbours. That is, they tend to be introverts (Sur, 2003; Warr, 1987; Selye, 1978).


Anxiety as a Stress-Related Syndrome
Anxiety is characterized by noticeable changes in the way an individual thinks, feels and behaves. The experience of anxiety often arises as a reaction to perceived condition/situation of THREAT to an individual’s security or well-being. Anxiety as a symptom of stress, can be exhibited in clinical or non-clinical forms. When diagnosing an individual with generalised anxiety disorder, Sephton, et al. (2003) stated that clinicians would be watching out for the experience of uncontrollable feeling of worry in an individual which may occur for most days within a period of not less than six months.

Non-Clinical
Anxiety in a non-clinical form causes physical changes that bring about an increase in an individual’s sense of alertness and readiness to react to external events or conditions facing him, at a particular point in time. That reaction could be to FIGHT or take to FLIGHT. That is, he may decide to take courage and face the challenge confronting him; with a view to finding a solution to that problem; or he may choose to run away from the problem and abandon himself to fate.
Symptoms of fight or flight response in non-clinical anxiety includes the following:
- Increase in the rate of heart-beat, thereby pumping blood faster to the muscles and the brain,
- The muscles become tensed/contracted, in readiness for action;
- Rate of breathing increases, to take in more oxygen.
- There is a widening/dilation of the pupils of the eyes for more detailed observation of events. In the same way, all other senses, like the senses of hearing, smell, touch, taste and balance perform maximally in order to pick up any available information required for the fight or flight response. Other physical changes are the conversion of reserved carbohydrate in the body from Glycogen to Glucose under the influence of the hormone ‘glucagon’ in order to provide energy for immediate action; increased sweating for thermoregulation; and a reduction in the rate of digestion because greater blood flow has become directed to the vital organs that have roles to play in the fight or flight reaction.

CLINICAL ANXIETY
Persons suffering from clinical anxiety experience a number of identifiable symptoms. They are generally restless, become easily tired and worn out, and have much reduced level of focus or concentration. They are easily irritated, and often suffer loss of sleep. Unlike other people, victims of clinical anxiety perceive the world around them as being full of circumstances that threaten their personal existence; and over which they have no mental power to bring such circumstances under their control (Suhr, 2003).

PANIC
According to Wang, et al, (2004), panic is the climax, or highest level of anxiety in which an individual feels so much threatened by certain circumstances that his brain is flooded with all sorts of thoughts occurring in very quick succession. Symptoms of panic include profuse sweating, palpitations; trembling; shortness of breath, nausea and dizziness. The effects of panic on their victims are so serious that such individuals find it difficult to continue with their normal activities for a length of time.

SELF OBSERVABLE SIGNS OF STRESS
Selye (1978) stated that individuals may not always depend on a medical doctor to tell them if they are suffering from stress, or not. According to Selye (1978) the following is a list of self-observable signs of stress:
• Inability to concentrate
• Insomnia
• Frequent desire to urinate
• Excessive loss of appetite, causing alteration in body weight — leading to either obesity or pronounced leanness.
• Feelings of weakness, and dizziness
• General feeling of irritability
• Increase in the rate of heart beat, which is an indicator of High Blood Pressure (HBP).
• Nightmares
• Dryness of the mouth and throat;
• Premenstrual tension, or missed menstrual cycles These are indications of severe stress in women.
• Floating anxiety: The person is afraid, but cannot say exactly what he is afraid of.
• Grinding of the teeth
• Sweating, which may be profuse, or mild, depending on the degree of stress suffered.
• Pain in the neck, or lower back, caused by increase in muscular tension. This is clinically measurable with the ELECTRO-MYOGRAMME (EMG).
• Diarrhoea, indigestion, and sometimes vomiting. These are all signs of malfunction in the alimentary canal (gastro-intestinal malfunction). In extreme cases, this condition may lead to the development of peptic ulcer (peptic ulcerative colitis).
• Emotional tension
• Trembling/nervous twitches
• An increased tendency to move around, aimlessly (Hyperkinesia). It must be emphasised here, that the recognition of the signs and symptoms of stress is the first, and very crucial step in stress- management.

CONSEQUENCES OF NEGATIVE STRESS ON HUMAN PERFORMANCE
Inferences from the literature review so far show that people suffering from stress have disorganised thoughts; they are reserved; highly irritable and uncooperative. In addition, uncontrolled experience of stress may lead to frustrations and abnormal behaviour. Individuals under stress could violate/disobey laid-down regulations, or procedures in the performance of certain functions in their homes, or places of work. This, in turn, could lead to serious errors in what they are doing, with equally disastrous consequences (Aguta, 2006).
In one study, by Chiara, and Scaife (2006) it was shown that higher frequencies of accidents in work places were associated, or linked with people with higher levels of stress. Melmed (2001) also reviewed individual factors influencing driving behaviour, with particular reference to the relationship between stress and road accidents. Mehled (2001) found that high levels of stress among drivers were associated with riskier or more dangerous driving behaviour; and higher rates of accidents. Warr (1987) also observed that individuals suffering from high levels of stress often find it difficult to successfully complete the job in hand, because of lack of concentration. Depressed persons also lack the power of taking initiatives. The sense of self-pride is usually absent. There may be short-term memory loss. Frustrations arising from stress-related depression, often precipitate mild, or violent reactions in the home or place of work (Aguta, 2006).

Purpose of the Study
This study is intended to find out the strategies which most people adopt in managing their conditions of stress. This is with a view to letting the public know the more plausible stress management practices to adopt.

Significance of the Study
It is envisaged that the contents of this paper will be beneficial to various sets of people. Those who resort to alcoholism, smoking or drug intake as stress-management strategies will realise that these things do them more harm than good. The physically challenged will know that the manifestation of their natural talents is preferable to self-pity. Others will learn that stress could be more plausibly managed through Counselling and Music Therapy; dealing humanely with subordinates; engaging in tasks with realisable objectives; and having good mental and physical relaxation through rest and recreation.

Population
For this descriptive study, 1,500 male and female staff of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria, were used.

Sample, and Sampling Technique
150 respondents, representing 10% of the total population, were randomly selected; using the Table of Random Numbers (TRN) in the sampling process.

Data Instrument
The tool for data-collection consists of twelve test-items stating the stress-management strategies which people might possibly be adopting. Respondents were requested to indicate their responses to each statement by putting a ‘tick (Ö)’ in the ‘YES’ or ‘NO’ column they consider most appropriate.

Validity
Research experts vetted the data-tool to ensure that its contents were non-ambiguous, and are capable of eliciting the desired information on stress management practices of the people.

Reliability of Data Instrument
The Data tool was tested for reliability through a test-retest process using thirty staff from the Faculty of Education, University of Benin, Nigeria. Its reliability level of 0.75 was considered high enough for this study.

Questionnaire Administration
The questionnaire were personally administered on the respondents, with the assistance of two trained research assistants; and the cooperation of the Heads of Departments within the faculty. Completed questionnaire were retrieved immediately, to avoid questionnaire mortality.

Findings
Shown in the Table below were the responses of the subjects to the questions in the questionnaire requiring them to state the things they did to get better anytime they were emotionally stressed, or troubled.


STRESS-MANAGEMENT PRACTICES YES NO
1.
Drinking some quantity of alcohol 90
(60%) 60
(40%)
2. Smoking cigarette, or taking hard drug 45
(30%) 105 (70%)
3. Undergoing some counselling/psychotherapy 65
(13.3%) 85 (56.7%)
4. Engaging myself in some work to occupy my mind 68
(45.3%) 82 (54.7%)
5. Taking drugs that make me sleep, or feel relaxed 110 (73.3%) 40 (26.7%)
6. Listening to music 48
(32%) 102 (68%)
7. Setting only objectives I can accomplish without great difficulty. 54
(36%) 96
(64%)
8. Resting very well to relieve tension/stress. 66
(44%) 85
(56%)
9. Telling my close friends my problems, and taking their advice 66
(44%) 84
(56%)
10. Not letting any problem disturb my emotions at all. 58
(38.7%) 92 (61.3%)
11. Accepting my personal disabilities/limitations 62
(41.4%) 88 (55.6%)
12. Showing good understanding, and dealing humanely with people 90
(60%) 60
(40%)


The study revealed that most of the respondents adopted items 1, 5, 9 and 12 tress Management Practices (SMPs); a lot more than the adoption of SMPs indicated in items 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 10 and 11.
Discussion
It is deduced from the findings of the study that m the attempt to find a way out of their conditions of stress, and make themselves more comfortable, some victims of stress try to manage their condition through either orthodox or unorthodox practices.

Non-Orthodox Practices
Some of them take to the consumption of alcoholic drinks to calm their frayed nerves. Alcohol is known to be a stimulant initially, giving the consumer the false impression of being in high spirit. Unfortunately, this euphoric feeling is short-lived. He soon realizes when the stimulating effect of alcohol is overtaken by its sedative effect that the problem/event that triggered off his stress, in the first instance, is still very much around. So, alcohol offers a deceptive relief from stress (Melmed, 2001).
Alcoholics, therefore, tend to go back to drinking as soon as the temporary relief offered by alcohol wears off, and the feeling of stress sets in again. This is when his problems may become compounded. He gradually becomes addicted to alcohol-intake; and suffers from the consequences of such addiction. Examples: Copious intake of alcohol therefore, reduces carbohydrate supply to muscles. This, in turn, results in reduced production of energy, making the individual suffer from chronic weakness/fatigue (Godman & Gutteridge, 1980). Moreover, Alcoholism reduces the appetite for food leading to malnutrition in alcoholics. This, in turn, reduces the individual’s power to resist some opportunistic diseases. Thus, the ultimate consequences of addiction to alcoholism, as a way of finding solution to stress, is that the victim may unwittingly reduce his longevity, and die before his time (Godman & Gutteridge, 1980).
For those who smoke ordinary cigarettes excessively to manage their stress, they run the risk of developing cancer of the lungs. This is as a result of the effect of the nicotine in cigarette smoke which irritates parts of the respiratory tract. If hard drugs, like cigar, marijuana and similar illicit drugs are consumed as a stress-management strategy, the individuals may end up suffering from varying degrees of mental disorder such as hallucinations, schizophrenia (split-personality syndrome), phobias and, possibly, outright insanity, in extreme circumstances (Melmed, 2001). These and other antisocial effects alcoholism, smoking and intake of hallucinating drugs make them unhealthy and unacceptable tools for stress management.


Orthodox Methods:
More acceptable avenues for stress management which some of the respondents indicated that they practice, include:
Psychotherapy, which is achieved through investigation. Here, a psychotherapist goes into a direct dialogue either with the victim of stress or his close relation/confidant, to find out the cause of his condition. This is followed up with logical suggestions and counselling on how the specific issue(s) involved could be sorted out. Once the identified stressor is removed, or solved, that individual usually recovers from his state of psychological stress (Patmore, 2006). 56.7% of the subjects who said they adopt this stress management option, therefore deserve commendation.
An idle mind is said to be the devil’s workshop. Lack of something meaningful to do often gives vent to stress, in the form of mental worries. Getting occupied in one form of gainful employment/activity, or the other, in time of stress, as indicated by 54.7% of the respondents will help to defuse their pent-up emotions; and usher in mental relaxation and better moods.
For the 73.3% of respondents who manage their stress with drugs, some drugs like tranquilizers or sedatives could actually be administered to persons already suffering from very high levels of stress, such as depression and other controllable forms of stress- induced mental ill-health. However, this should be quickly replaced with psychotherapy and other non-chemotherapeutic measures, as soon as the individual becomes appreciably stable, to avoid drug-addiction.
It was William Shakespeare who wrote that “he who does not listen to music; and is not moved by the sound of music, is not worthy to live.” Music is also said to be food for the soul. Indeed, the soothing power of music to distressed or mentally disoriented persons is amply demonstrated by the mad people on the streets. For as long as good music is being played, those demented individuals become so ‘tamed’ that they dance and feel highly elated, oblivious of their sorry condition. It is good, therefore, that up to 68% of the respondents listen to music of their choice because of its palliative effect on their stressful conditions.
Stress commonly arises when individuals discover that they are unable to achieve their set-objectives, or expectations, either completely, or within the period they have set for themselves (Udoh and Ajala, 1980). People should, therefore, emulate 36% of the respondents who stated that they set for themselves, tasks that they can successfully accomplish, within the limits of the power and resources available to them.
Any activity an individual is engaged in, in his daily life should not be a do-or-die affair. Time must be created for rest and recreation, in order to ‘kill’ mental tension and remove physical stress. It is unfortunate that up to 56% of the respondents do not adopt rest and recreation as a stress management technique. People are advised to prevent, or fight-off stress by engaging themselves in pleasurable hobbies. However, the best and most effective form of rest is good sleep (Omoruan, 1996).
76.7% of the respondents indicated that they tell their friends their problems and welcome their soothing advice. This is highly commendable. Individuals under stress should learn to open up to family members, close friends and other relations, and tell them their worries. Heart to heart discussion with such people, and valuable suggestions from them could very significantly help in removing the source of stress affecting them.
Akinloye (1984) advised that we should learn to cope with stress by adopting a STRESS-FREE PHILOSOPHY OF LIFE. People should not be excessively worried about certain situations. You can make ‘Heaven a hell’ or make ‘hell a Heaven’ by the way you use your mind. Akinloye (1984) advised further, that we should always recall the statement made by William Shakespeare that “there is nothing that is good or bad. It is the way we think, that makes it what it is’. Unfortunately, only 38.7% of the respondents indicated that they adopt this philosophy as a stress management strategy. They should be emulated by the generality of people.
Some people can become victims of stress because of their handicap, such as physical deformity; debilitating or chronic illness; very poor intellectual powers; inability to make progress at the same pace as their more successful peers, etc. This was sadly confirmed by 56.6% of the subjects in this study. Agonizing/brooding over such situations will only accentuate their conditions of stress. To overcome/prevent psychological stress, individuals must learn to take their peculiar conditions in stride, with a big and courageous heart. They must learn to hold their heads high, and avoid the spirit of despire and hopelessness. Rather, they should explore their natural gifts, and discover specific talents in them which could be developed to the fullest to achieve fame and honour in the society. That was how late President Roosevelt was able to use his administrative powers to rule the United States of America from the wheel-chair; and Stevie Wonder applied his artistic acumen in ruling the world of music, inspite of his visual handicap. So people should develop self-esteem and not self pity.
People in authority should do their best to avoid being sources of stress to their subordinates. They should be humane in their relationship with their staff and try to ameliorate, rather than compound or complicate their stressful conditions. It is, therefore, appreciated that majority of the respondents (60%) agreed that they apply this stress-management system.

Summary
Stress, like a coin, is a two-sided concept, with positive and negative dimensions. It is naturally part and parcel of life. While its positive aspect acts as a great motivator that spurs on an individual towards achieving success in any rewarding endeavour, the negative dimension of stress subjects man to emotional, or psychological health problems. Although experts have stated ways by which stress can be effectively managed, this study revealed that many people try to manage their stress conditions through unorthodox means, like alcohol intake. For those who are aware of orthodox stress management practices, the percentages of persons who actually apply such practices are generally lower than those who do not.

Conclusion
With the adoption of the right mental attitude to life; and the application of orthodox methods of stress management by all, man’s freedom from the negative consequences of stress can be guaranteed.

Recommendation
It is recommended that individuals should apply positive stress-management strategies, such as psychotherapy; sharing emotional problems with friends; setting only realistic goals for themselves; among other techniques outlined by scholars in the field of stress-management.

References
Aguta, R.M. (2006). Anger management and Temper control: its impact on Safety. Nigerian Institute of Safety Professionals, Safety Development Conference/Seminar, P.H., Nigeria. 8-10 Nov.

Akinloye, (1984), in Udoh, C.O. and Ajala, J.A. (1986). The concept of mental and social Health. Claverianum Press. Bodija: Ibadan, Nigeria.

Chiara, A. & Scaife, R. (2006). Investigation of Links Between Psychological Health, Stress and Safety, The Kell Centre for Health and Safety Executive, Edinburgh, E.H. 92 C.J.
Fawole, J.O. (2005). Stress: The Etiology of most Health problems. Annual Conference of the Nigerian School Health Association. ( Dec. 1-3)

Gump, B.B. & Matthews, K.A. (1998). Vigilance and Cardiovascular reactivity to subsequent stressors in men: A preliminary study. American Psychological Association Inc.

Godman, A. & Gutteridge, A.C. (1980). A New Health Science for Africa. 3rd ed. Longman Group Limited, London. Pp. 56 – 57.

Omoruan, J.C. (1996). A Handbook on Physical Education Sport and Recreation. S. Asokome & Co. Samaru, Zaria, Nigeria.

Patmore, A. (2006). The truth about stress. Atlantic Books, London.

Selye, H. (1978). in Udoh, C.O. and Ajala, J.A. (1986). The concept of mental and social Health. Claverianum Press. Bodija: Ibadan, Nigeria.

Sephton, S.E., Stuat, J.L., Hoover, K., Weisbecker, I., Lynch, G., Ho, I., Mcguffin, S., & Salmon, P. (2003). Biological and psychological factors associated with memory function in Fibromyalgia Syndrome. Health Psychology, 6:592-597.

Sur, J. (2003). Neuro-psychological impairment in Fibromyalgia: In relation to depression, fatigue and pain. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 4:321-329.

Udoh, C.O. & Ajala, J.A. (1986). The concept of mental and social Health. Claverianum Press. Bodija: Ibadan, Nigeria.

Warr, P. (1987). Work, unemployment and mental health. Oxford University Press.











CHEMO AND RADIOTHERAPY MANAGEMENT OF CANCER IN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF THE NATIONAL HOSPITAL, ABUJA.

BY

DR. A. E. NWACHUKWU,
(HEALTH & SAFETY EDUCATION, P.H.E. DEPARTMENT,
DELTA STATE UNIVERSITY,
ABRAKA, DELTA STATE, NIGERIA)


ABSTRACT
The population of cancer patients in Oncology Departments of some hospitals in Nigeria is alarming. Some receive not les than thirty new cancer cases weekly. Effective treatment of several cancers requires a combination of surgery, chemotherapy and Radiotherapy. Unfortunately, there are only three hospitals in Nigeria with facilities for Radiotherapy. This grim situation prompted the researcher to undertake this study. Nine variables investigated included: identifying the most common types of cancer reported in the National Hospital; the medical personnel available; the percentage of all required drugs and treatment facilities available; the general cancer management procedure, among others. Data for this descriptive study was collected through structured interview and medical records as well as through observations of some facilities, equipments and management processes. Results included that the National hospital receives about fifty new cancer patients per month; cancers of the Breast; cervix; Head/Neck; and Prostate glands are most common; all required drugs and about 70% of all required cancer management facilities and equipment are available; and that cancer management procedures are comprehensive. It was recommended that Government should establish at least one well equipped Oncology Department in each state of the Federation; and that the high cost of cancer management should be subsidized by both Government and philanthropic organizations.


Cancer is a disease characterised by unregulated proliferation of cells, in any part of the body. This proliferation arises from gene-mutation, which is essentially a damage to the DNA (dirybonucleic acid) that regulates cell growth (Cummings, 2006). The rapid and unregulated cell division could give rise to ‘Benign Tumour’ that does not spread to other parts of the body; or to ‘Malignant Tumour’ which can spread to other body regions, by the process of metastasis. Although both types can invade different tissues and organs; and interfere with their functions, malignant tumours are more life-threatening than benign tumours (New Scientist, 2006).
Cancers can occur in children, adolescents and adults; and are named after the type of tissue or organ where they are located. Thus there could occur cancers of the breast, lung, prostate gland, bladder, pancrease, endometrium, cervix, ovary, colorectal region, the blood (leukaemia), among several others (Jemal, et al., 2005).
The gene-mutation that gave rise to these cancers could be caused by exposure of the victim to ionising radiation (Tannock & Hill, 2005). However, many cancers have been shown to originate from viral infections in humans (Zur Hausen, 1991). According to Zur Hausen, viruses are indeed responsible for 15% of human cancers worldwide and appear to be the second most important causative factor for human cancers, surpassed only by tobacco usage.
Regarding incidence; while cancer, according to the American Council on Science and Health (ACSH) (1995); BBC News Online (2005) and Parkin, Bray, Ferlay and Pisani (2002) is overtaking cardiovascular disease as the leading cause of death in some Western nations, its incidence rate in many Third World countries, including Nigeria, is lower because of higher death rates caused by infectious diseases. ACSH (1995) and BBC News online (2005) stated, however, that as greater success is recorded in the control of Malaria, Tuberculosis and other infectious diseases in the Third World countries, an increase in the incidence of cancer is expected to occur in these parts of the world. This phenomenon is termed ‘epidemiologic transition’.
From literature review, this situation appears to be taking place in Nigeria already. Many families in a wide range of communities and states in this country have lost a number of their members and friends to cancer disease, in recent times. The Print and Electronic media are awash with such reports (Oghenerhaboke, 2008).
The population of cancer patients in cancer treatment centres in Nigeria is frightening. According to Oghenerhaboke (2008) Remi Ajekigbe, a consultant radiologist, in the University of Lagos Teaching Hospital, Nigeria, said he treats not less than 42 cancer patients weekly; 12 of them are new cases. Also, Popoola Olaniyi, a radiologist in another Nigerian Hospital said he receives between 30 – 50 new cancer cases weekly. These do not include those who seek treatment in private hospitals, or by other means like Herbal Treatment which is advocated by Adodo (2000).
Unfortunately, 90% of Nigerians, according to Abdul Kareem (2008) are unaware that several cases of cancer can be successfully treated, if detected and managed early. Sadly enough, ignorant victims of the disease seek medical intervention in the late stage of the disease. Other reasons for reporting late for treatment, or not even reporting at all, are financial difficulties, long distances to treatment centres; and lack of family support.
When it is recalled that very effective treatment of several cancers requires a combination of surgery, chemotherapy and Radiotherapy, it becomes highly depressing to note that there are only three hospitals in Nigeria with facilities for radiotherapy. These are the National Hospital Abuja; the University College Teaching Hospital (UCH) Ibadan; and the University of Lagos Teaching Hospital (Oghenrhaboka, 2008). Given the speedy rate of proliferation of cancer cells; and the urgency which the treatment for cancer demands, the chances of this large population of cancer patients of all ages receiving such speedy treatment from these three hospitals to save their lives, may not be guaranteed. It was this grim situation that prompted this writer to carry out this study entitled Chemo and Radiotherapy Management of Cancer in Nigeria: a Case Study of the National Hospital, Abuja”.

Scope of the Study
To guide this study, the following variables were selected for investigation in the stated Hospital.
1. Most common cancer cases recorded.
2. Approximate number of New cases per month.
3. Ratio of early to late stages of the disease when medical report is first recorded.
4. Medical personnel available
5. Percentage of required Treatment facilities and Equipment available.
6. Availability of required drugs
7. Treatment/management outcome
8. Patients’ Rating of the National Hospital; regarding cancer management capabilities.
9. Diagnosis and case management procedure.

Objectives of the Study
This study has the principal objectives of getting answers to the stated research questions; identifying the major determinants of successful cancer treatment; and making appropriate recommendations for the management of the disease in Nigeria.

Research Questions
The research questions for this study centred principally on:
1. Finding out the cancers prevalent among recorded cancer patients;
2. How early, or late the cases are reported;
3. Whether all required calibre of medical personnel, facilities, equipment and drugs are in place;
4. What is the success level of cancer management in the hospital?
5. From their personal experiences, how do most patients rate the National Hospital, Abuja, regarding cancer management capabilities?
6. What procedure does cancer diagnosis and management involve in the National Hospital Abuja, Nigeria?

Significance of the Study
The outcome of this study will bring to the general public greater awareness that the most common types of cancer in Nigeria, according to medical records, are cancers of the Breast, Cervix, Head/Neck and the Prostate glands. Furthermore, from the rating of 80% involved in this study, the general public particularly cancer patients will benefit from this investigation by coming to know/realise that the National Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria is a medical institution with very high cancer-management capabilities.

Method of Data Collection
Data for this Descriptive study was collected with the use of a structured interview document administrated on the consultant physician and Head of Oncology Department, National Hospital, Abuja. Further information and clarifications were elicited from the chief Radiotherapist, the available Medical Records; and a total of 50 randomly selected cancer patients receiving treatment at the hospital. These were backed up with observations of some facilities, equipment and management processes.

Validity of the Interview Document
The data instrument was validated by two doctors in the Oncology department of the University of Lagos Teaching Hospital, and two others in the University College Hospital, Ibadan. This was after vetting it for clarity, sequence, depth and suitability for information gathering.

Instrument Reliability
The reliability of the instrument was ascertained by administering ten copies of the data-tool on ten professional medical staff of the Oncology Department, University of Lagos Teaching Hospital for completion. This was reported two weeks later. The test, retest results were computed for significance using the Pearson or reliability coefficient and statistical process. The reliability level of 0.78 was established for the instrument.

Data Analysis
Data analysis for the study involved the use of non-parametric statistics like percentages and ratio.



Findings of the Study

Interview Variables Responses
1.
Most common types of cancer recorded, in their descending order of frequency. Cancer of the Breast, Cervix, Head/Neck and Prostrate Gland
2. Approximate number of new cases per month 50 (fifty)
3. Ratio of ‘Early’ to ‘Late’ stages of the disease on 1st hospital visit 5:1 (five to one)
4. Categories of medical staff (male and female) a) Consultant Doctors 2
b) Non-consultant doctors 2
c) Radiologists 3
d) Nurses 4
e) Ancillary staff 9
5. Approximate percentage of required facilities and equipment available 70% (seventy percent)
6. Availability of required drugs for chemotherapy Always available, but expensive
7. Success level of cancer management Over 90%
8. Patients’ Rating of the National Hospital, in cancer-management capabilities a) Excellent 40 (80%)
b) Very Good 7 (14%)
c) Good 3 (6%)
Total 50 (100%)
9. General procedure applied for cancer diagnosis and management (Please, see information below)






Responses to Item 9:
a. Biopsy: To distinguish between malignancy and Hyperplasia.
b. Measurement of vital signs, including blood test: to know the general fitness level of the patient.
c. X-ray: to know the organ/tissues involved
d. Simulation: to know the volume of cancer cells; then do some markings and rehearsals, before the actual radiation.
e. Electrocardiograph (ECG) Test: To ascertain the condition of the heart responsible for blood and drug circulation.
f. 24-hour urine test: To know if patient can tolerate drugs.
g. Height and weight measurement: to calculate the dose of drugs to administer.
h. Treatment Planning Scheme/System: To calculate the surface area involved, and enable the Radiologist know where to concentrate the rays/beam during radiation; using the Linear Accelerator equipment.

Discussion
The study showed that cancers of the breast, cervix, neck/head and prostate gland are the most common types of cancer suffered by patients treated in the Oncology Department of the National Hospital Abuja, Nigeria. it is significant to note that three of these four commonest varieties of cancer occur in the reproductive regions of the body. This is considerably worrisome, in terms of the negative implications they could have for Reproductive Health, with particular reference to safe and successful child-bearing and breast-feeding (Ekanem, 2008).
The disclosure that the approximate number of new cancer – patients reporting for treatment at the hospital is as high as 50 (fifty) per month, is equally a source of worry. This figure virtually tallies with the average number of new cancer cases per month in the University of Lagos Teaching Hospital (Oghenerhaboke, 2008). This constant influx of fresh cancer patients is the National Hospital, Abuja, in addition to the number of patients already undergoing treatment in the said hospital could be overwhelming to the number of Doctors, Radiologists and nurses available in the Oncology Department. It is also a testimony to the upsurge of cancer disease in Nigeria.
Interview report showed that about 70% of all required facilities and equipment for cancer management, personally observed by the researcher, are available in the National Hospital. Inspite of this, information elicited from the Head of the Oncology Department of the national Hospital, indicated that their success rate in the treatment of cancer is over 90%. The cancer-management-capability of the Hospital is therefore, commendable. This high level of success in the management of cancer at the National Hospital, Abuja, was corroborated by majority of the cancer patients (80%) who rated the Hospital high in its ability to manage their own cancer problems.
Two principal factors appear to have contributed remarkably to this success story. The first is the disclosure that majority of the cancer patients presented themselves for treatment at the early stages of their ailment. This was portrayed by the Ratio of five early presentations to one late presentation; as shown in the interview report. Although it is praiseworthy that most of the cancer patients reported early for treatment, there still exists a measure of concern that some cancer patients could not commence their cancer treatment early enough. This may have accounted for the few lost cases that made the percentage rate of success in cancer management, a little less than 100. It must however, be noted that what may be described as the EARLY STAGE of cancer is strictly ‘relative’. It is not adjudged in terms of ‘number of months’. This is because some cancers grow very slowly; and could last 5 – 10 years without causing serious problems, or death. Other types are highly meristematic. So, they become full-blown and life-threatening within a relatively short period of time. Thus, up to a year could be EARLY presentation for the first category of cancer, while less than 6 months could be LATE presentation for the fast-growing class of cancer (Oyesegun, 2005 and New Scientist, 2006). In general, therefore, the most important factor determining the outcome of cancer treatment is the time of presentation. Medical treatment commenced at the early/most appropriate stage have 100% successful treatment (Oyesegun, 2005).
The second principal factor which could have contributed to the high level of success in cancer management at the National Hospital, Abuja, is the information that all required drugs for the treatment of the disease are always in stock at the hospital. Interview report revealed, however, that the drugs are very expensive. The implication of this is that cancer patients with poor financial background may be unable to avail themselves of the opportunity of getting treatment from the hospital.
The general procedure adopted in the treatment of cancer patients at the National Hospital, Abuja, as manifested in the research findings is not only comprehensive, but thorough. Both Radiotherapy and chemotherapy for example are applied in the treatment of cancer patients. All steps taken in the treatment procedure have also been designed to ensure that no avoidable errors are made in the overall management process.

Conclusion
From all indications, the incidence of cancer disease is on the rise in Nigeria, but well equipped and efficient treatment centres are few and far between. The National Hospital Abuja is one of such medical institutions in Nigeria where the success rate of cancer management/treatment is very high.

Recommendations
1. Government should establish at least one well-equipped and adequately staffed Oncology Department in each state of the Federation. This will decongest the existing cancer management centres, and bring treatment services closer to the teeming population of cancer patients in the country.
2. Government and philanthropic organisations should subsidize the high financial cost of cancer treatment; to enable patients in the low income group have the greater opportunity of surviving from their life-threatening ailment.




References

Abdulkareem, F. In Oghenrhaboke, A. (2008). The killer called Cancer. Newswatch. Oct. 20. Pp. 60 – 63.

Adodo, A. (2000). “Herbal Treatment for Cancer”. Pax Herbals Clinic, EWU, Edo State, Nigeria.

American Council on Science and Health (1995). Is there a Cancer Epidemic in the United States?

BBC News Online (2005). Cancer: Number One Killer. British Broadcasting Corporation, London.

Cummings, P. B. (2006). Principles of Cancer Biology. Kleinsmith.

Ekanem, I. M. In Oghenrhaboke, A. (2008). The Killer called Cancer. Newswatch. Oct. 20. Pp. 60 – 63.

Jemal, A., Murray, T., Ward, E., Samuels, A. Tiwari, R. C., Ghafoor, A., Feuer, E. J., & Thun, M. J., (2005). “Cancer statistics, 2005”. CA. Cancer J. Clin. 55(2): 10 – 30. PMID 1566 – 1684.

New Scientist (2006). Everything you wanted to know about Cancer. New Scientist.

Oghenrhaboke, A. (2008). The Killer called Cancer. Newswatch. Oct. 20. Pp. 60 – 63.

Parkin, D., Bray, F., Ferlay, J., and Pisani, P. (2002). Global Cancer Statistics. C. A. Cancer J. Clin. 55(2): 74 – 108. PMID 15761078.

Tannock, I. F., Hill, R. P. (eds.) (2005). The Basic Science of Oncology. 4th ed. McGraw-Hill.




















Zur Hausen, H. (1991). “Viruses in Human Cancers”. Science, 254(5035): 1167 – 73. PMID 1659743. Interview Respondents.

Dr. Oyesegun, A. R. Consultant Oncologist, Oncology Department. National Hospital Abuja, Nigeria.

Dr. Igbinoba, J. Consultant Oncologist. Oncology Department. National Hospital Abuja, Nigeria.

Okoye, N. Radiotherapist. Oncology Department. National Hospital Abuja, Nigeria.